Кредитная Карта 13000 Рублей В Цоцине-Юрте

could solve from 13, to 15, crimes a year. from Middle Asia and Ukraine; cocaine from Latin America; совместно с кредитными организациями организует кон- .. ному взысканию по 5 рублей с каждой погонной сажени нечаянно опрокинул на карту стакан воды, доказав тем. iPhone 6 64Gb - Все цвета руб. 4 поддержка двух SIM-карт экран 4", разрешение x камера 5 МП память 4 Гб, слот для Цоцин-Юрт. Thus, the principal suppliers of cocaine in the world market are the countries of денежно-кредитной политики, установление правил ведения банковских .. виновные подвергались де нежному взысканию не более 25 рублей) своих завистников, писал: «Тюренн Мазарину опрокинул на карту стакан .

Candice Matthews is the cofounder and executive director of Cincinnati-based startup accelerator Hillman , which empowers startups led by women and people of color, both underrepresented in the venture-capital space. She met Gilbert last year when she was looking for funding. Matthews told me that while she is not partnered with Rock Ventures, she remains in touch to share intel on rising minority-led startups.

Not only was Rock Ventures more explicitly speaking about this effort, she said, but there were there more investments in minority-led startups. Gilbert also recently appeared with Jones at the National Association of Black Journalists conference held in Detroit, where they announced that the Afrotech conference for black tech entrepreneurs would be held in Detroit in August.

Regina Gaines, president and managing partner of the House of Pure Vin wine shop downtown, located in a Bedrock property, considers Gilbert a "mentor and a friend. We all have a part to do. It is not just on Dan Gilbert. He said that the urban renewal of the 20th century began with the concept that the current version of downtown was obsolete and had to be started all over, including making way for things like highways through vast destruction.

He appreciated that, in contrast, Gilbert is retaining the Woodward Avenue corridor — that same boulevard he drove down with his grandfather at age It was apparent as I spent time both downtown and in some of the neighborhoods that Detroit is still in the early days of its recovery.

I saw few police vehicles, and when my hotel had a fire alarm ultimately false go off at 2: It was significantly quieter once the real-estate-developer crowd went home. When I boarded the Q Line , it stopped after five minutes and discharged its passengers to walk the rest of the way a representative for M-1 told me that M-1 has been working with the city to reduce blocked tracks as residents adjust. Despite all this, there is a real sense that change has come to the city.

This current "rebirth" of Detroit is in its nascent stage. It will be yet another meaningless cycle of growth and decline if it cannot get the support of real Detroiters throughout the city and be accompanied by lasting institutional changes at the government level to sectors like public education and infrastructure. But Gilbert is making a long-term bet on the city. Normally known for his brash and unorthodox leadership style, Musk was, at points, penitent and self-reflective, acknowledging the headaches some of his more recent public behavior have caused for his company, its board members, and its shareholders.

The matter stems in part from an assertion Musk made on Twitter — that he had "funding secured" for a privatization deal , and stating the price at which shareholders could unload their shares: All of this has prompted questions about what motivated Musk to forgo the proper channels in favor of hashing out sensitive financial strategy on social media.

His claim that funding for a go-private deal was "secured," Musk said, was prompted by his belief that Saudi investors were on board to fund a deal.

The events of the past week are the result of a slowly brewing anxiety in Musk. Musk, in his interview with The Times, pointed again to the challenges surrounding his heavy workload and lack of sleep. According unnamed sources cited by the newspaper, some Tesla board members have expressed concern about this, because the sleep medication sometimes leads to "late-night Twitter sessions," rather than sleep, the source said. That issue has reportedly prompted internal efforts to find a second-in-command for Musk, though the chief executive says he is unaware of any such plan.

An early bitcoin investor explains what most people get wrong about the cryptocurrency. This new sector will include companies that provide platforms for communication, of course, and those that operate various kinds of media.

Apple is currently housed in the Technology sector, and in the Communications Equipment industry. But over time, these categories have become more fluid for other tech companies. Is Verizon, with its recently acquired media arm Oath, really just a telecoms company?

The GICS is keeping up with how much evolution has taken place in tech. And so, the GICS reclassification is a reminder of sorts to markets about what these companies really do, and it aims to reflect where companies earn most of their revenues from. Real Estate, from its breakout as a sector through August 15, , returned almost nothing — 0. This performance gap suggests investors focused on very different fundamentals for these once-unified sectors. The change is going to affect some of the biggest and most popular tech companies, including Facebook and Alphabet.

Both will move from the old tech sector to the new communication services group. Netflix, another one of the so-called FANG stocks, is also getting reshuffled. Disney and 21st Century Fox are making the same industry move. Big spending on original content and licenses is a key part of its business. MSCI plans to release a final list of all the stocks affected before flipping the switches on September But unlike the Real Estate reclassification, most investors are no strangers to a good number companies being reshuffled, such as FANG stocks.

Some stocks are getting moved around, but their weights on the index are not, so the reshuffle itself may not be a big market mover. That can be difficult for individualistic, egalitarian citizens of liberal democracies to accept. We have long been taught to revere the marketplace of ideas. Let a million ideas bloom, and through competition with each other, the best will thrive and spread while the worst die out under scrutiny.

But this is not what happens in our shared digital lives. This is what happens when the dream of a marketplace of ideas has been supplanted by the nightmarish reality of a world in epistemological collapse.

In such a world—our world—the loudest, most viscerally satisfying "take" often gets far more traction than the smartest one, precisely because we have lost the capacity to reach any kind of consensus about what even counts as "smart. A society is a better place with magazines and newspapers that select for quality, YouTube rules that prohibit child pornography, and social-media platforms that ban people who threaten violence.

He lays blame for its shortcomings on what he sees as its insufficient constraints, even when blame is better attributed to the decisions of gatekeepers, rather than their absence. Way back in , President George H. Bush invited him to the Republican National Convention. After Bill Clinton left office in , as Hillary Clinton sought a political career in New York, both socialized repeatedly with Trump in a seemingly transactional gambit to advance all of their interests and ambitions.

Staring in , the NBC television network and the producer Mark Burnett worked to make Trump a primetime reality-TV star, casting him as an accomplished real-estate mogul making decisions behind a boardroom table, using all the artifice of their industry to make him look good. The image they cultivated for Trump on that show was arguably the most powerful factor in shaping the perceptions of his supporters. In , Mitt Romney added to the perception that Trump was a man to be taken seriously in business and politics by soliciting his endorsement and accepting it at a press event where he praised the businessman.

All along, Trump would always have an easy time being welcomed on television to share his uninformed opinions. Campbell Brown aptly described the role cable-news networks played during the campaign:.

Nor does he force anyone to accept his phone calls rather than demand that he do a face-to-face interview that would be a greater risk for him. TV news has largely given Trump editorial control. It is driven by a hunger for ratings—and the people who run the networks and the news channels are only too happy to make that Faustian bargain. Trump speaks for first time since Wisconsin loss.

Air the Trump rallies live and uninterrupted. Gatekeepers created President Trump. Now forget Trump and consider the new media landscape. Surely YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter all illustrate the awful things that some individuals will do in civic discourse when no gatekeepers intervene? There is some truth to that. Digital communications, no matter how conceived, cannot free themselves of people behaving badly anymore than an actual public square.

That individuals differ in their cognitive and emotional capacities is beyond dispute, as is the need for acculturation to make civic life function smoothly. And perhaps a frictionless marketplace of ideas really would be much worse than what its advocates imagine if it ever came to pass. The platforms give the illusion of content-neutrality beyond some basic rules. Yet what they show us is not a simple stream of what is uploaded in reverse chronological order, filtered as each user prefers.

Were that so, it would be easy enough to block bad actors as individuals. On YouTube, those tweaks lead some users to ever more extreme content. On Facebook and Twitter, the results are complicated and usefully explored in a recent exchange between Ezra Klein and Jaron Lanier.

I am still a believer that bringing people together is valuable and can create wonders. So I agree with that positivity. I thought the framing of it was great, I thought it was remarkably generous and open considering the intensity. It was inviting, it was positive. I thought it was an amazing thing. And I think the general initial reaction to it was positive for most people, actually.

Of course, the way engagement is measured is with very rapid feedback, so the people who have the more impulsive instead of the more considered reactions tend to read more clearly to the feedback algorithms. And as it happens, the people who are irritated or disagreed with it were the most engaged. And that is what always happens.

So these people that hated Black Lives Matter were not only identified by the algorithm but introduced to each other. And their annoyance was reinforced, and reinforced, and reinforced, not out of any ideological bent on the part of a company like Facebook, but rather just through the algorithmic seeking of engagement. So long as it keeps your attention! Oh, and every so often, a stranger grabs you by the sleeve and drags you into a makeshift dunk tank while onlookers throw rotten eggs at the target.

Social-media sites expose nearly everyone to people behaving badly, and nearly everyone wants them to perform some sort of gatekeeping functions. Markets have been gripped by the developing crisis in Turkey over the last few weeks.

Traders love a crisis. A crisis tends to create volatility, which creates the opportunity to make larger sums of money by betting on price moves. The reverse, of course, is also true: It added that its Turkish trading operation "represents a very small part of our overall credit business.

Other investors to be stung by the Turkey crisis include millennials using popular platforms like Betterment and Wealthfront. The businesses, which are two of the most popular online investment platforms in the US, are both top 10 holders of the Vanguard FTSE Emerging Markets exchange-traded fund. This socially responsible investor says what a company does is even more important than how they do it.

On my recent trip to Russia, I spent an hour with Mikhail Gorbachev. He paused a moment and then recounted how as a young man, he had watched a film on the devastation that would occur with nuclear war.

He and the other young officials in the room looked at each other in shock as the film concluded. Gorbachev recalled the scene: In the nuclear-cum-space era a world war is the absolute evil. It cannot be won I asked Gorbachev about meeting Reagan for the first time. He said that their first meeting was affable but inconclusive. Press reports from the Reagan camp revealed that Reagan thought Gorbachev was just an old-school Bolshevik.

Gorbachev remembered his response when his aides asked whether Reagan was just a hard-line anti-communist. But both men persisted. Despite the Cold War atmosphere, rampant mistrust, and fearmongering on both sides, the leaders engaged each other. Over a four-year period, the former eliminated nearly 2, missiles. Over the years, though, agreements with Russia to reduce nuclear arms have not followed a straight path of success. Bush announced his intention to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

In addition to placing a cap of 1, on deployed strategic nuclear warheads, a nearly three-quarters drop from START, New START also cut in half the allowable number of strategic nuclear-delivery vehicles, such as missile launchers and heavy bombers. If either side allows it to simply sunset, it will be the first time in several decades that a nuclear-arms-reduction treaty between the U.

As our hour was coming to an end, I asked Gorbachev whether he had any words of wisdom to improve our current dialogue. That echoed his public call last year:. If the INF treaty could be saved, it would be a powerful signal for the whole world that the biggest nuclear powers understand their responsibility and take their obligations seriously. Gorbachev argued then , as he did in our meeting, for a summit between President Donald Trump and Putin to discuss nuclear-arms control.

I have invited members of both Foreign Affairs Committees to Congress this fall to continue these discussions.

It is my hope that Democrats who have previously been supportive of nuclear-arms reductions will join in these meetings. I, for one, am thankful that Reagan and Gorbachev defied orthodoxy to cut stockpiles of nuclear weapons and reduce the tension between our countries. I hope thoughtful minds will prevail in our current standoff with Russia, and embrace the dialogue necessary to further reduce the potential for the terrible, world-altering catastrophe that a war between nuclear powers could bring.

The day after my meeting with Gorbachev, I visited Bunker 42, built by Stalin to survive a direct nuclear hit on Moscow. Each day, people secretly descended about feet below the streets of Moscow to a bunker protected by foot-thick concrete. In the bunker, I watched a video recounting the nuclear-arms race, which culminated in Russia exploding a megaton hydrogen bomb aboveground that destroyed everything within more than a dozen miles, with effects that could be felt and seen for hundreds of miles more.

Likewise, in America, we built an elaborate bunker deep in the mountain adjacent to the Greenbrier resort in West Virginia. Today, thanks to Reagan and Gorbachev—two leaders brave enough to engage in dialogue—these bunkers are decommissioned and open to tourists.

My goal in visiting both government and opposition leaders in Russia is to promote dialogue. My hope on my return to Congress is that I will find bipartisan support for improved dialogue and continued progress on reducing nuclear arms. Davide Capello, a former goalkeeper who is now a firefighter, was driving across the Morandi Bridge when a foot section collapsed during a violent storm Tuesday morning. His car was one of at least 33 vehicles that fell from the bridge — and somehow he walked out alive.

He told Repubblica that he felt "helpless" inside the vehicle as it fell about feet 30 meters. Capello managed to free himself from the vehicle and climbed through the rubble to reach waiting emergency workers.

The people who were there at the time helped me and then the rescuers arrived. It was a movie scene, it seemed like the apocalypse. Officials in the Liguria region told the Associated Press on Tuesday night that 26 people had died, saying two more bodies had been found and one of the 16 injured had died in surgery.

Reuters, citing local reports, is saying the death toll has reached as high as The collapsed Morandi bridge was a section of the A10 motorway, near the city center. The collapse took place as torrential rain fell in the region at The section of the bridge that collapsed was about 80 meters feet long and 50 meters feet above the ground, and crossed over railway tracks and some buildings, according to Reuters. Sanders went on to say that neither she nor any other White House staff member would be working in the West Wing if Trump "was who some of his critics claim him to be.

On Monday, Manigault Newman said she heard a recording of Trump using the N-word , which she says she had the opportunity to listen to after her book went to press. She made it up. Все планеты — в том числе и наша Земля — окружены электромагнитными волнами, которые могут проявляться даже акустически, при этом звук их может напоминать потрескивающий звук горящего костра, утреннее чириканье птиц или стрекочущих насекомых. Эти волны создают не только полярные сияния, но и способны ускоряться до такой степени, что это может даже наносить вред искусственным спутникам и зондам.

Взяв за основу старые данные NASA, полученные зондом Galileo, ученые смогли установить, что так называемые хоровые волны вблизи некоторых лун Юпитера невероятно усиливаются, причем у Ганимеда они усиливаются даже в миллионы раз.

Почему это происходит, ученые сказать пока что не могут. Вид наибольшей юпитерианской луны Ганимеда — крупнейшей из лун в Солнечной системе. Как пишет команда исследователей под руководством Юрия Шприца из Центра Гельмгольца в Потсдаме GFZ в свежем номере журнала Nature Communications, интенсивность хоровых волн около Юпитера вблизи его луны Ганимеда увеличиваются, по сравнению со средним тамошним значением, в миллион раз.

Что касается хоровых волн, то так называют радиоволны в очень низком частотном диапазоне. В отличие от Земли, которая движется в своем собственном магнитном поле, Ганимед и Европа тоже движутся внутри гигантского магнитного поля Юпитера. И именно это обстоятельство, как считают ученые, играет ключевую роль в усилении волн. То, что магнитное поле Юпитера является самым сильным в нашей Солнечной системе, превышая силу магнитного поля Земли в 20 тысяч раз, объясняет и тот факт, что земные хоровые волны по сравнению с юпитерианскими — это практически ничто.

И пусть даже малая часть этих волн смогла бы покинуть окрестности Ганимеда, электроны смогли бы экстремально ускориться, что могло бы обеспечить условие для образования высокоэнергетичных электронов-убийц магнитного поля Юпитера. На основании данных зонда Galileo ученые группы Юрия Шприца определили силу магнитного поля вокруг газового гиганта вблизи его лун Ганимеда и Европы графическое представление.

В то время как уже было известно, что луна Юпитера Ганимед обладает собственным магнитным полем и волнами плазмы в своем окружении, до сих пор было неясно, представляют ли эти волны собой случайные события, или такое усиление является постоянным. Анализ и оценка данных пролетов зонда Galileo в и годов возле Ганимеда свидетельствуют, что, скорее всего, речь здесь идет о постоянном явлении. Новое исследование поднимает вопрос, может ли происходить такое и на орбите Юпитера.

Более того, наблюдения газовой планеты проливают свет на основополагающие процессы физики плазмы, которые могут иметь важнейшее значение для будущего энергообеспечения. Кроме того, они позволяют заглянуть в механизмы ускорения и потери электронов на других планетах и даже в удаленных уголках вселенной. Since then, assorted frenzied analysts have attempted to discern what Musk meant and when he meant it.

In the span of just seven days, Musk has been harshly judged for the morality of his decisions, queried by the SEC, re-assailed by short-sellers, and more-or-less endlessly debated in money media. Meanwhile, back at Tesla mission control in California, the company has continued to crank out automobiles. How fast could a go-private deal develop? The following quarter saw another loss. That dynamic could flip, however, in Q3 and Q4 of I personally think the go-private deal is a bit better than a coin flip at this juncture — but I also assumed Tesla would manage at least one profitable quarter in the second half.

Right now, the go-private debate has turned into a useful distraction: During the attack, two drones, each carrying 2. Interior Minister Nestor Reverol said one was electronically diverted by security forces, while the other crashed into an apartment building nearby.

The commotion and blast scattered the crowd assembled there. Seven national guardsmen were injured. Maduro and other officials were unharmed, and it appears to be the first time drones were used to target a head of state. Maduro called on President Donald Trump to hold the "terrorist group" responsible. The US and Colombian governments have both denied involvement. Santos left office on August 7.

A group called "Soldiers in T-shirts" appeared to claim involvement, saying on Twitter that, "We have shown [the government] is vulnerable. A former police chief and opposition member also claimed that he helped organize the attack, and a Miami radio host has said he was aware of the plot and that there are more coming. Several people have already been detained.

One had a warrant out for him in relation to an attack on a military barracks in late Juan Requesens, an opposition legislator, was arrested, and the arrest was ordered of former National Assembly leader and opposition leader Julio Borges. Former members of the military have also been accused of involvement.

Maduro was seen as likely to use the attack as a pretext for another crackdown on political rivals and to purge the security forces to further consolidate his power.

In a weekend meeting with senior military officials, Maduro appeared to preface such a purge, reiterating his claim of Colombian and US involvement and saying that members of the armed forces should distance themselves from family members opposed to the government. Scores of personnel from various branches of the Venezuelan military have already been arrested and charged with treason so far this year, Ramsey said, but the government may see this case differently.

Some officers have used their position to pursue corruption or drug-trafficking schemes and now rely on the government to shield them from prosecution. During the weekend meeting, Maduro also announced new benefits for military personnel, part of an effort to grow the force. Not all members of the military have benefited from those perks, however, and discontent has grown as the country frays. Despite changing sentiment, the latest crackdown seems unlikely to provoke a successful revolt.

Martha McSally of Arizona and Rep. Elise Stefanik of New York. The absence of any mention of McCain — whom the defense bill is named after — raised eyebrows. You know, the decorated war hero who was a prisoner of war, continues to serve as United States senator, chairman of the [Senate] Armed Services Committee. John McCain and his family and thank him for his service to the country," Tapper added. I hate to tell you.

The president has continued to throw subtle jabs at the senator after he voiced his opposition on matters of national security , healthcare , and immigration. Meanwhile, McCain said he was "humbled" and thanked his colleagues for naming the bill after him. Following the all-white uniformity at Wimbledon, tennis players tend to go all out on fashion when they compete at the US Open every year. So it seems apt that Nike enlisted streetwear designer Virgil Abloh to create a new line for Serena Williams to wear at the tournament, which takes place in New York City later this month.

Scroll through to see the whole collection, which will also be available at select Nike stores in the coming weeks. He said in a press release that he hoped to "embody her spirit and bring something compelling and fresh to tennis. We traded images and there was a lot of back-and-forth to get this done in short order". Louis, and in doing so, he became one of just five golfers in history to win the U. Open and the PGA in the same season. Ironically, one of those other golfers, Tiger Woods, finished second, coming up just short in his quest to win a major tournament more than ten years after winning his last one.

Koepka barely blinked in a fourth round he started with a two-shot lead, shooting 66 to finish at under par, while Woods thrilled the crowds repeatedly with a wild round of 64 to finish two strokes behind the winner. His win was fueled by a tournament-record 63 in the second round and by steady play in the face of a patented Woods charge in the fourth round. Although Woods never took the lead, he made eight birdies on Sunday to constantly keep the pressure on Koepka and Adam Scott, who played in the final pairing, two groups behind Woods.

Scott posted 67 in the fourth round to finish third at 13 under, his best result in a major tournament since when he won the Masters and finished tied for third in the British Open. Stewart Cink and Jon Rahm finished tied for fourth at under par. No matter what any other player did on the course, though, the champion rarely wavered, especially on the final 12 holes which he played in 5-under par. Koepka, who missed the Masters this year due to injury, is now a shoo-in winner for the PGA of America Player of the Year, having won two of the three majors he played in this season.

Woods opened with a 70 on Thursday, and it was Gary Woodland, who won the Phoenix Open back in February, surprisingly in the lead after the first round of play, shooting 64 to take a one-stroke lead over Rickie Fowler. Zach Johnson was tied for third at 4-under par, just two strokes behind Woodland, with Brandon Stone.

After the completion of the second round on Saturday morning due to weather issues on Friday afternoon, Woodland still led the tournament. He carded a 66 to sit at under par, closely followed by Kevin Kisner at 9 under. Kisner shot 64 in the second, and coupled with his 67 from Thursday, he found himself in sole possession of second place. Fowler was in third, two shots back of the lead, after a second-round 67, tied with Koepka, who shot his blistering tournament-record 63 on Friday before the weather delay.

Overall, 17 players were within five shots of Woodland heading into the third round on Saturday, and close to half of them already had won a major in their respective careers. At one point, Koepka threatened to run away with tournament, as he led by five strokes for a time. However, by the end of Saturday play, the eventual champion led by two strokes at under par after shooting Scott carded a 65 to finish at 10 under, while three players were tied at 9-under par: Fowler, Woodland, and Rahm.

Woods lurked in a six-way tie for sixth-place tie at 8 under after posting his second straight round of Despite his brilliant career, Woods has never won a major when attempting to come from behind in the fourth round, and in addition to making those eight birdies on Sunday, Woods also carded two bogeys which ended up costing him a chance to break that pattern.

Needless to say, with a sixth-place tie at the British Open also under his belt this season—where he actually led briefly in the final round—Woods made it clear on Sunday he may yet have more major championships in his future.

With his third major title, having also won the U. Open in , Koepka is now part of another select group of golfers to have won at least three majors in their 20s.

This Week In Golf. Once known as the Greater Greensboro Open for decades, the Wyndham is a great opportunity late in the season to collect money and points for a lot of golfers that may not have been able to break through yet this year. Henrik Stenson is the defending champion, as the Tour heads to North Carolina and the Sedgefield Country Club for an event that dates back to , when the legendary Sam Snead won the first of his record eight event titles.

Also scheduled to play in the tournament is Rafa Cabrera Bello, who shot 64 on Sunday at the PGA to finish in a tie for tenth place at 9-under par.

Cink and Scott will try to capitalize on their excellent play at Bellerive, too, hoping it carries over to Sedgefield. Open, will be on hand and in the field to perhaps do some last-minute scouting for that international competition scheduled for September in France. Dating back to , the event has been played predominantly on the Sedgefield course, designed by Donald Ross in Although Scottish by birth, Ross designed hundreds of course in the United States, although this loop is the only he created that is still used for a PGA Tour event.

He also designed U. He also is an Ironman triathlete and certified triathlon coach. International air travel is normally a pretty stressful affair.

We hustle just to get to the airport. Then we stand through long lines in both security and passport check. We are usually charged fee after fee just to board the plane and get our bags through; and to top it off, the seats are usually crammed.

These airports were built to impress travelers, not just to shuttle them around the world. They were constructed to the tune of many millions if not billions of dollars to impress and inspire world travelers on a grand scale of what their host countries are capable of accomplishing. There is no other airport in the world that supplies its travelers with both a brewery and giant ice rink. During Christmas the airport holds a winter market where travelers can skate around and then try various brews.

Since opening in , this has been rated one of the top airports in the world. Incheon International includes fascinating architecture and various gardens sprinkled throughout its terminals. Расследование преступлений лишь в детективных романах предстает как захватывающее дух действо. В реальности это рутина. Отработать окружение, пройти по денежному следу, собрать материальные улики, по два, по три, а если надо, и по десять раз опросить всех, кто имел или мог иметь отношение к потерпевшему.

Весь вопрос в наличествующих ресурсах. На расследование инцидента в Солсбери британские власти истратили уже более 12 млн долларов и, как они сами утверждают, поставили на него лучшие полицейские кадры.

Медийно инциденты в двух лондонских пригородах отработаны почти на отлично. То же самое будут говорить все мейнстримные политики. Лишь немногие члены парламентов США и Британии могут позволить себе, говоря юридическим языком, обоснованные сомнения. Особенно грамотно был срежиссирован последний демарш Госдепа. Американское дипломатическое ведомство пригрозило Москве такими санкциями, что политики и эксперты три дня обсуждали лишь их возможные последствия. Но что с самим уголовным делом?

Точнее, с его расследованием? Что ж, Москву и не планировалось допускать к этим материалам. Некоторые из них даже от местной полиции засекречены. И все же с каждой новой волной антироссийского пиара в связи с делом Скрипалей становится всё яснее, о чем молчат, точнее, что прячут от России и мира британские силовики и их американские коллеги.

Родни у Сергея Скрипаля в Британии нет. К нему время от времени приезжала дочь и во время последнего визита была отравлена вместе с отцом. Что ж, Юлию Скрипаль следователи отработали. В какой-то момент в прессу попала версия, что отравляющее вещество было в ее багаже. Но эта версия не подтвердилась. Так, знакомые и соседи. Их опросы а также экспертиза позволили опровергнуть версию о том, что отравляющее вещество было помещено в кондиционер автомобиля Скрипаля.

Представим себе обычное следствие. Первые опросы и экспертизы ничего не прояснили. Кто у нас там на очереди? И вот тут в материалах следствия зияет огромная дыра. Между тем имя его работодателя хорошо известно во всем мире. Не проходит и дня, чтобы его имя не упоминалось в американской прессе. Позднее стало известно, что еще одним заказчиком Стила было ФБР. Бюро достаточно давно пользовалось услугами Orbis, но в году отказалось от них, поскольку предоставляемые Стилом данные зачастую являлись непроверенными или вовсе высосанными из пальца.

Однако в году Стил снова понадобился Вашингтону. Отчасти это объясняется прекрасно поставленным самопиаром Кристофера. Но главное было, конечно, не в этом. Как выяснили американские журналисты Дэвид Корн и Майкл Изикофф, посредником в сделке выступил не кто-нибудь, а Виктория Нуланд, спецпредставитель США на Украине в статусе заместителя госсекретаря.

Однако еще в марте часть их исследований была опубликована в издании The Washington Times. Досье Стила впоследствии было использовано минюстом США для получения ордеров на прослушку членов команды Трампа. Ильиш предлагает различать уровень словосочетания и уровень предложения.

В словосочетаниях предлог связывает слова друг с другом; на уровне предложения предлог связующей функции не выполняет, поскольку входит в состав члена предложения. Under the Greenwood Tree Под гринвудским деревом, заголовок романа Т. Если согласиться с такой трактовкой, то нельзя не отметить, что речь здесь идет не о национально-специфическом, а скорее об универсальном свойстве предлогов. Далее автор отмечает то, что можно В английском языке предлог не может состоять только из согласного, то есть быть не слоговым, как три русских предлога в, к, с.

Конечно, все это становится возможным благодаря тому, что предлоги в английском языке не требуют определенной падежной формы вводимого ими существительного. Существует три основных случая употребления предлога: Предложный оборот может употребляться как вне обособления, так и в обособлении: Хотя предлоги служат для того, чтобы выражать различные отношения между существительным или его эквивалентом , которое за ним следует, и другими словами в предложении, они иногда отделяются от этого существительного или его эквивалента.

Из приведенных примеров следует, что в таком случае предлоги сохраняются за предшествующим ядерным словом. В этом последнем случае грамматические функции предлога несколько иные, а именно: X laughed at him He was laughed at by X. Коннекторы класс служебный и потому нередко квалифицируемый как закрытый. Известно, однако, что в современном английском языке, как и в русском, состав объединяемых в этот класс предлогов и союзов характеризуется наличием обширных периферийных зон, где обнаруживаются многочисленные слова из больших частей речи, сочетания слов, делающие разграничение коннекторов от других классов весьма трудным.

Наличие у коннекторов ярко выраженной полевой структуры очевидно. Это вполне закономерно, потому что коннекторы, как и большие части речи, объединяются в класс на функциональной основе, а функция в принципе способна вовлекать в свою сферу самую разнообразную субстанцию и не ограничивается той субстанцией, которая специализирована для ее выполнения. В языках синтетического строя соответствующие подразделения коннекторов обычно разграничиваются четко: Типологическая перестройка в английской грамматической подсистеме, разрушив участие предлогов в падежном управлении и превратив коннекцию в особый способ синтаксической связи, ослабила сцепление предлогов с подчиненным существительным.

Поскольку коннекция связь двусторонняя, это неизбежно привело к некоторому усилению сцепления предлога с подчиняющим словом. Важным проявлением изменения сил сцепления стала способность предлога располагаться в конце предложения, на расстоянии от связываемого им существительного или местоимения, что характерно для нескольких конструкций, требующих перемещения этого существительного или местоимения в начало предложения: What did he work with?

Ослабление сцепления предлога со связываемым существительным имело и другое последствие: Очерки по морфологии современного английского языка. О месте некоторых видов наречий в структуре современного английского языка.

Издательство литературы на иностранных языках. The Structure of Modern English. A Course in English Grammar. Essentials of English Grammar. Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney. A University Grammar of English. Longman, [first published ] A Grammar of Contemporary English. Все, что считается наукой в юриспруденции или праве на самом деле таковым не является Аннотация. Law has been taught for centuries at European universities, but even today we do not know what kind of thing law actually is.

It somehow seems very strange but unfortunately this is how it is. Normally, we say, law is law. As long as we do not know what law is, we cannot, in the scholarly sense of the word, speak about crime as a phenomenon.

Hence, we can today speak about crime as the form of some other phenomenon or phenomena , or, in other words, about crime as seemingness.

But let it be said right away that crime should not be investigated through crime itself this is a very important postulate! We also have to underline that law is not any supernatural phenomenon, for example given to us by God.

Law derives from society and society alone. Naturally, law is a social phenomenon, but we do not very well know why it is a social phenomenon. As crime springs from law then crime, too, must be a social phenomenon. But once again we do not very well know why it is a social phenomenon. Actually, non-law is being taught in faculties of law as juridical or legislative acts mainly speak about what one should not do, how one should not act and what one should avoid at the threat of punishment.

It is also difficult to understand the term positive law, which means the current legislation in force in literature about law. In fact, two very different terms, law and legislative acts have been mixed up here. One of the most essential things here is this how and why law becomes positive law or legislative acts. Until today, law and legislative acts are believed to be one and the same phenomenon. This conviction is erroneous. Curiously, the lowest level of crime was in the so-called canonised Soviet period.

This fact confirmed also the insignificant number of registered premeditated murders and attempted murders. But most importantly, there was no pronounced property stratification in the society and no unemployment, as a result of which mutual relations between people were much better than they are today. Inhabitants fear of falling victim to crime has increased.

The proportion of people who feared that they could fall victim to street crime increased from 13 per cent to 42 per cent compared to Закон и право веками преподавалось в европейских университетах, но даже сейчас мы не можем сказать, что же это такое на самом деле.

Это кажется странным, но это так и есть. Пока мы не знаем, что такое закон, мы не можем, в научном смысле этого слова говорит о преступлении как феномене. Но надо сразу сказать, что преступление не следует расследовать через само преступление и это очень важный постулат!

Закон порождается обществом и только им. В норме закон это социальное явление, но мы не знаем точно, почему он социален. Поскольку преступление связано с нарушением закона, то и само преступление должно быть социальным явлением. Но опять мы не знаем, почему оно социально.

На самом деле не-закон преподается на юридических факультетах, поскольку юридические и законодательные акты в большинстве своем говорят о том, что не следует делать, как не следует поступать из страха заслужить наказания. На самом деле здесь смешиваются два термина: Наиболее существенный момент До сих пор закон и законодательные акты рассматривались как одно явление.

В этом заключается ошибка. Любопытно, но самый низкий уровень преступлений наблюдался в канонический Советский период. Этот факт подтверждался также незначительным количеством убийств. Но что особенно важно, в обществе не было стратификации собственности и безработицы, в результате чего отношения между людьми были гораздо лучше, чем сейчас.

Боязнь жителей страны стать жертвой уличного преступления возрасла. I A scholarly look at the possibility of the scholarly study of crime Introduction. In order to study crime it is necessary to previously understand, what law is, a phenomenon or a value. For Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel everything, often probably including people, were things.

Normally, we say that, law is law. In October , after the World Congress on Criminology in Barcelona, the author of this article sent to some leading scholars of the subject a very short opinion of those problems, of which there is a brief discussion below. Earlier, today s speechmaker has spoken on the subject at highlevel international seminars in Vilnius , St.

Petersburg , Riga and Vilnius , Leps, Law is not a phenomenon hovering above the society We also have to underline that law is not any supernatural phenomenon, for example given to us by God.

The subject under discussion also includes the so-called natural law abstract or ideal law , which, figuratively speaking, means that law is some kind of phenomenon hovering above the society and is not in any way connected with it. But this is not the case. As crime springs from law then also crime must be a social phenomenon.

But once again, we do not very well know why it is a social phenomenon. Distinction between law and legislative acts, rule of law, and correlation between law and economy Actually, non-law is being taught in faculties of law as juridical or legislative acts mainly speak about what one should not do, how one should not act and what one should avoid at the threat of punishment.

Incidentally, non-law could also be the general definition of breaches of law breaches of laws, crime, offensive conduct. As we know, civil-law infringements are their own business for members of the society, but in the case of a crime one of the parties is always the state.

From here we could hurriedly proceed also to the topic of the rule of law, as politicians, and Estonian politicians in particular, like to emphasise in every possible case that we live according to rule of law. By doing so they want to leave the impression that everything is absolutely OK, that the people live in an environment that does not jeopardise them in any way that the to thousand unemployed in Estonia today mean nothing, a lot of people have gone abroad to seek work and live?

Let us here bring a hint in the form of a statement by Karl Marx: The bourgeois economists have merely in view that production proceeds more smoothly with modern police than, e. They forget, however, that club-law too is law, and that the law of the stronger, only in a different form, still survives even in their constitutional State Marx, As a result, the basis of law has to be always and above all found in relations of property, particularly of private property and organisation of the economy, which is why law does not have its own history and consequently law is probably not an eternal phenomenon Hegel, Neither do we know how big the share of economy should be in the regulation of relations of law and organisation of the economy.

Consequently, law was then preferred to economics at the Tartu University, Faculty of Law, which is eventually not right. But such a concept of things was characteristic of the period. On the one hand, many Western specialists in law hold such a point of view today, contrary to scholars subscribing to post-modernist points of view who often deny the modern use of legislative acts. The riskiness of their views often refers to anarchy or, on the other hand, to infallibility so judges of the US Supreme Court need not be guided so much by legislative acts in force than their own convictions?!

Justice The term justice has whipped up a lot of passions in Estonia. Ilmar Tammelo , reportedly the best-known Estonian legist, has made an in-depth study of justice.

He wrote that justice is a positive ethical social value according 1. The territory of Estonia covers 17, sq mi. The Estonians are a Finnic people, and the sole official language, Estonian, is closely related to Finnish. Estonia is a democratic parliamentary republic. The capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of only 1,34 million, Estonia is one of the least-populous members of the European Union. On 1 January , Estonia changed over to the euro, the single European currency.

But he also pointed out that the idea of justice in the way as it has been presented in the above definition was not immediately applicable in theoretical law. The author of the article asks, why? Everything is OK, but what Professor I. Tammelo did not know is the most important thing, phenomenon or value that defines or gives the parties their shares in standard bilateral situations.

But the value of Prof. Tammelo s knowledge lies in that he very correctly pointed out that justice must also have another side.

Another Estonian legist, Eduard Raska unfortunately, did not understand what Prof. Raska asks what the standard bilateral situation means, and that also the phrase his or her share needs interpretation Raska, Raska naturally did not understand Prof.

Tammelo because he thought that justice, exactly like law was some kind of unilateral phenomena, values or things. The conclusion from this is the following. If one is not familiar with something, or is poorly informed about it, he does not know what things law and justice actually are.

But it is clear that one person s or a group of persons right to some thing or object, briefly to some kind of a value, need not be just with respect to another person or group of persons. Even Plato distinguished two types of justice: If there would not be law there would not be any legislative acts, and consequently, any crimes or crime But before viewing crime, we should briefly discuss nonlaw infringement of the law , that is, offence.

For example, Article 3, section 1 of the Penal Code defines an offence as a punishable act provided for in this Code or another Act this is not the best ruling.

Section 2 of the same article says that offences are criminal offences and misdemeanours. Article 3, section 3 defines a criminal offence as follows: A criminal offence is an offence, which is provided for in this Code and the principal punishment prescribed for which in the case of natural persons is a pecuniary punishment or imprisonment and in the case of legal persons, a pecuniary punishment or compulsory dissolution. Article 3, section 4 defines misdemeanour as follows: A misdemeanour is an offence, which is provided for in this Code or another Act and the principal punishment prescribed for which is a fine or detention.

This is the formal treatment or concept of an offence, a notion that does not bring us a single step ahead in the scholarly sense. But the Penal Code does not really have to open the material contents of an offence, although it could do so, because otherwise we could get the impression that there is no need for the Penal Code at all. True, the criminal law dogma does not deal with it and so the whole problem remains hanging in the air.

Law was needed because of growth in the number of crimes, writes Apostle Paul. It is quite clear that if there were no legislative acts, there would not be any offences, either criminal offences or misdemeanours. But this does not mean that these acts or inactions would therefore remain uncommitted. At the same time, legists should be interested in the material definition of an offence a criminal offence or a misdemeanour , that is, the contents of an offence a criminal offence or a misdemeanour.

Until we have not made clear for us the material contents of an offence a crime or a misdemeanour , we cannot unfortunately study offences in the scholarly sense by what phenomena a crime has been caused, which is particularly necessary from the point of view of the prevention of offences including crimes and misdemeanours.

In Estonia, we do not speak about offences but about crime. As crime is a phenomenon that comes under the sphere of administration of the Ministry of Justice and as they mainly investigate crime for some reason there, then also the author proceeds from it, although this is not quite proper and accurate.

Today the crimes committed in a certain territory during a certain period are added up and as a result a totally new phenomenon is born crime, which is then viewed concerning its dynamics; its structure is studied and compared with the number of population, etc.

Of course, such information has a certain importance in the daily work of law enforcement bodies. But attempts are made to attribute a scientific value to such information, although it is far removed from science. An endless number of professional reports and books are being written on such a scientific basis throughout the world.

The method of dialectic logic Where is the error that things are what they are? The author is convinced that the error must be looked for from the methods used to study crime.

Every scholar or researcher invents his own methods by which he then attempts to solve one or another problem, but actually generates new problems, as it tends to happen in the case of empirical treatments. Unfortunately they do not want to admit that there have been only a few great scholars men of genius if you wish who have managed to produce a scientific method, which should surely be used also in the study of crime.

The title of that method is dialectic logic, which reflects, by means of philosophical categories or basic notions, the most common and significant properties of phenomena of reality and cognition. Plato was the man who, treating the method of cognisance of ideas, first called the method dialectics. Aristotle has great services in working out philosophical categories.

Hegel, who viewed categories in their dialectic development, has said with a modesty characteristic of a great scholar that his development of the categories was relatively modest, as Aristotle had already done that work.

Aristotle studied ten categories including being, essence, the basis of all the other categories, quality, quantity and other categories. Hegel asserts that logic is the most difficult science Hegel, And unfortunately, this is true.

Marx who, apparently, best of our contemporaries understood Hegel s dialectic logic and developed it, has said regarding safeguarding of what has been acquired a notion pertaining to law that each mode of production produces its specific legal relations, political forms, etc.

It is a sign of crudity and lack of comprehension that organically coherent factors are brought into haphazard relations with one another that each new form of production creates property relations, forms of government etc Marx, Marx has actually borrowed the meaning of the second sentence from Hegel Hegel, Hegel s so-called Greater Logic being, substance and reality, which treats objective logic, and his Doctrine of the Notion that deals with Crimes registered by Estonian enforcement bodies in subjective logic Hegel, is an extremely difficult nut to crack for every scholar.

If, however, Hegel s dialectic logic is not well understood, there is no sense in dealing with the social sciences, including law, either! According to Hegel everything on the level of being is concrete and on the level of essence relative and probable. This is an important fact. In the author s opinion the best expert of these spheres of scholarship was the St Petersburg legist Lev I.

Generally, people often love to speak about the systematic treatment of one or another social science, but in practice no one has achieved the gist of the matter, that is, systematic treatment. On the other hand, we cannot accuse scholars that came before us of stupidity. Hegel wrote in the first part of his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences or so-called Shorter Logic: Development of the logical idea becomes progressive movement, that is, thinking, rising from the abstract to the concrete, the earlier systems that have occurred in the history of philosophy are more abstract Hegel, and consequently correspond less to the reality.

Thus, contrary to a widespread opinion, crime, one of the principle terms of law, particularly criminal law, is actually an entirely abstract phenomenon. True, crime is a real fact on the one hand, but on the other hand, it is entirely abstract nature of the phenomenon.

Punishment A few words also about punishment. As a result, the consequence punishment becomes more important than the cause crime. I wonder whether it is the best title but this is how it was decided.

After all, Estonians themselves cannot accomplish anything at all?! But as far punishment is concerned then retaliation to the culprit, reformation of the person of the culprit, improvement of the culprit so he would not commit and further offences, and in case of imprisonment, also the fact that until the culprit is isolated from the society he cannot as a rule commit any new crimes, is usually understood as the punishment.

None of the above definitions of punishment are wrong, but summed up they will not constitute the phenomenon that Hegel calls something, which is also the contents of punishment Hegel, The death penalty is naturally retaliation.

Only several countries representative bodies, parliaments, have done away with the capital punishment. The population has been against the abolition of the death penalty everywhere But Hegel says: Faculties of Law teach subjects such as theory of the State and of law; which today is called public law.

The names titles of both the courses are perhaps not very accurate. Law and relations of law proceeding from law are, after all, phenomena rising from the society, that is, phenomena rising from social relations. Law descends into positive law, that is, legislative acts legislation , which is the patrimony of the State, because legal acts must be ensured by the force compulsion of the State.

After all, the State is only necessary in order to keep in check members of the society with egoistic views and behaviours, which is inevitable in the conditions of private property. So needs of members of the society create the State. How these transitions take place and what the concrete needs of members of the society are is something science does not very well know today.

And it is difficult for it to acquire this knowledge as the general, although erroneous, opinion is that law and legislative acts are one and the same phenomenon. What should serious scientific study of law begin with?

Every beginning is hard, for the problem is really difficult. What is the uppermost in scholarship is also the uppermost in history. It is not possible to begin philosophy from myself or from population as there is no objective movement, although it seems right to begin with something real and concrete.

In his Philosophy of Law Hegel begins with the most abstract phenomenon possession Hegel, , about which K. Marx says that Hegel correctly begins the study of law philosophy of law with possession as the simplest law relationship of the subject Marx, Consequently, possession as an immediate concrete fact is the immediate acquisition by an individual or a collective of individuals of natural objects Spiridonov, Hegel says that the truth of being as well as of non-being lies in the unity of both one and the other, and this unity is becoming, i.

In other words, it means that the philosophical category of being logically, and not temporally, presumes in it a contradiction. As a result of the category of being, or something, in this case possession, presumes an inherent contradiction. But contradiction generates movement, having an impulse and activity, which passes into some other phenomenon Hegel, What form of property possession takes is again a very Premeditated murders and attempted premeditated murders registered by law enforcement bodies in difficult problem.

It should be said as a marginal note that in conditions of capitalist production relations between members of the society are as a rule expressed through private property. Hegel researcher Kuno Fisher wrote that by its nature Hegel s philosophy logic was like knowledge, like a will to acquire new knowledge and solution of problems rising from that new knowledge Fisher, In connection with the category of philosophical initiation, or being, which in the study of law is possession.

Spiridonov notes that it becomes extremely difficult in the course of further theoretical analysis for the scholar not to lose the entirety being studied. Careless analysis that has lost the image of the entirety as its original precondition and aim always risks to break up the subject into parts, which are totally unspecific for the entirety, and it is no longer possible to put them together into a new entirety, like it is impossible to cut a body into pieces and then gluing them together into a living body Spiridonov, Unfortunately, it has to be noted here that philosophers, specialists in economics and representatives of other branches of science have developed law in a considerably greater degree than legists themselves.

The lawyers main presumable shortcoming is that they usually do not know philosophy or have a poor knowledge of it.

What we should think about today s jurisprudence as science? A few years before his death Prof. Spiridonov, whom the author of this article knew for 25 years, said that he still wanted to write his last book, which would have been titled Philosophy of Right.

Spiridonov said on several occasions that he had already written the first sentence of the book: Everything that is regarded as science in jurisprudence or law actually isn t it Spiridonov, Unsystematic treatment Here, the author very briefly analyses certain notions and terms connected with law and linked with the research of Table 1.

Registered crime in the period crime. The author did it unsystematically, not characteristically of the scientific approach to the subject. The author did not present the terms dealing with the reality in transition from one to another, although they should flow like water in a river, but did it as it is peculiar to our today s science.

Probably the time has arrived when it is necessary to start on a strictly scientific basis about the contents of phenomena of the reality law and non-law, positive law and legislative acts legislation , crime and punishment and offences crime.

The time of complicated and often nondescript definitions sucked out of the pen seems to be over. I feel sorry for law students who have to learn by heart all kind of definitions, which even the lecturer often does not understand. Here is a funny example from the late s when a lecturer at the Faculty of Law of Tartu State University said that a warrant of payment was a document titled Warrant of Payment.

But if the student s mechanical memory is not so good, he will develop difficulties in the acquisition of subjects taught at the Faculty of Law. II Crime in Estonia in the period from to Some general observations The world, the society the civic society as Hegel liked to say and even the state, are organised bodies. Their evolution is based on universal laws.

However, they function in a different way in every country, refracted in the prism of unique national individuality and the non-recurring historical experience of different peoples. It must be born in mind that every age is the sequel of the previous one even if it next stage seems to be only a radical negation of the previous social formations. The tomorrow of breaches of the law crime is inevitably connected with their yesterday.

It is understood that every production relationship, that is relationship between people in the process of social production and through their relations to the means of production, that is relations of ownership, are characterised by its legal relations and regularities, which in turn affect the structure, dynamics and level of crime.

At the same time it is necessary to point out that the legist, being a member of the society, a contemporary of a certain historical epoch, and possessing certain philosophical, economic juridical, political and other views, must be above all honest with respect to himself and scholarship Spiridonov, In the brief treatment of crime that appears below the author is based on the traditional method of the treatment of crime.

An act of the Republic of Estonia of 9 November. Number of crimes registered and those solved, declared that all legal acts that were in force in the territory of the Republic of Estonia until 24 October had legal force. That ruling means that all penal acts of the Russian Empire, specifically the Code of Criminal and Corrective Punishments of , which entered into force from 1 May , the Law on Punishments given by Peace Courts of and certain parts of the Criminal Code of had legal force in the country.

From 1 April the Criminal Code of the Estonian SSR entered into force and remained in effect until By an act of the Republic of Estonia of 7 May a new version of the Criminal Code of the Estonian SSR entered into force from 1 June After the restoration of independence, the Criminal Code of was constantly amended so, capital punishment was abolished in and other acts in the area of the administration of justice were passed.

The new Criminal Code entered into force from 1 September , and in a certain sense became the summit in the history of Estonian criminal law, being very close to its continental European model, above all German one. The authors of the new Criminal Code mainly followed the example of the German Strafgesetzbuch of and the French Code Penal of Statistical analyses Crimes against the life, health and property of people as a form of unlawful activity are a reflection of the basis of common social existence and living conditions of members of the society.

On the other hand statistics often do no reflect crimes 3 economic crimes, corruption etc committed by employers, 2. All the figures and tables were drawn up by mag. The criminal statistics of the Russian Empire suffers from certain inaccuracy. An analysis of the dynamics of crime registered by Estonian law enforcement bodies shows that at the end of the existence of the Russian Empire the level of crime in Estonia was somewhat lower than in the initial years of independence Susi, ; in the canonical Soviet period 4, for example in , the number of crimes registered in the Estonian SSR was nearly five times lower than in the period , seven times lower if we exclude misdemeanours see the lower line on Figure 1 and nine times lower also than in the period of the restoration of Estonian independence, and nine times lower than the number of registered crimes at the beginning of the 21st century.

The biggest number of crimes in the whole history of Estonia, 58,, was recorded in Reiman, , Raid, , Leps, , Leps, a, Leps b, Leps, , Leps , Leps, , Leps, The work of the militia, too, was none the worse than that of the police in the period of independence, and openness of the people before the state as characteristic of the totalitarian society also favoured the solution of crimes.

Crime continued to rise, however, also in Soviet times, but as this did not fit socialist ideology according to which development of socialism was to lead to the contraction of crime, information about the existence of crime was classified. The author of this article was one among the first to start comparing the level of crime between different world countries 4.

In connection with the fact that only criminal cases were registered until , the number of crimes falling under the criminal investigation department was established in accordance with the following method. An interval as close as possible to the period under observation was chosen in In those years the number of crimes falling under the criminal investigation department was 1.

The same coefficient was used in Estonia to determine the number of crimes registered in the period from the autumn of to Starting with crimes handled in the line of the Department of Fighting with the Misappropriation of Socialist Property OBKhSS and other lines were specified in reports of the Estonian SSR Ministry for Internal Affairs.

In the period from autumn to the number of crimes falling under the OBKhSS line and other services corresponds to the number of criminal cases Leps, The Criminal Code of the Republic of Estonia, in which mainly misdemeanours and a number of other corpora delicti were no longer included, entered into force in As a result of the number of registered crimes sharply declined.

The structure of registered crimes was not published. There is no available criminal statistics of the years. Persons incarcerated in penal institutions, at end of year 95 world countries that published their crime figures , in which the gravest crime of all, premeditated murder, served as the basis of measurement Leps, a.

Although this method, too, has certain shortcomings, it is still the most reliable way of comparing the level of crime between different countries and the method can be successfully used also in historical terms. Figure 2 quite accurately confirms the rightness of this method cf. Figures 1 and 2. Intensive growth in the number of premeditated murders including attempts is observed in , the so-called transition period.

So in a record number of premeditated murders and attempted murders were registered a total of It was the classical period of the so-called thug capitalism when people usually accumulated their wealth created a class of owners! At the same time, juridical laws kept silent like in the period of wars in Rome in the antiquity. In the recent years the number of cases of murder and manslaughter has considerably contracted.

Restoration of independence brought also numerous problems in addition to freedom economic difficulties, sharp differences in affluence in the society and unemployment. On that social background an explosive growth in crime took place and the state experienced difficulty in ensuring the security of the population. However, there has been a certain fall in the figures of registered crime. The number of crimes registered by the Estonian lawenforcement bodies has fallen in the recent years. In , 42, criminal offences were registered in Estonia, the lowest indicator during the eight years in which the Penal Code has been in force.

Compared to , the number of registered criminal offences has decreased by In the number of crimes per , residents was 3, The number of crimes against property, which until showed a downward trend, has again slightly increased.

Although the number of crimes against property has dropped by It is interesting to note that the economic crisis disciplines members of the society to a certain degree 6.

Crime solution Crime solution is one of the most important duties of the police and serves as the basis to bringing persons having committed crimes to criminal responsibility. Figure 3 reflects the relationship between crimes registered and solved by the police in Leps, Figure 3 views the crimes registered and solved in the period and for the period crimes registered and solved by criminal investigation bodies. Starting from the earlier statistics are no longer given, therefore we regard all the crimes as registered and solved by Estonian law and order bodies.

The number of all non-solved crimes has increased. Data of the Estonian Ministry of Justice. In there was no record of all the crimes that remained unsolved. But the work of the Estonian criminal police in the solution of crime was rather stable. This was one of the best indicators in the world. In the Soviet period the first sharp increase in crime took place during the Moscow Olympic Games in of which the Olympic Regatta was carried out in Tallinn.

In that period a record number of crimes were registered 11,, whereas 2, crimes remained unsolved compared with to registered crimes in the period.

Another sharp growth in the number of unsolved crime took place in when 5, crimes remained unsolved. During the next wave in the rise of crime in as many as 11, crimes remained unsolved. Further, the number of unsolved crimes constantly increased and in already totalled 38, In the last decade of the 20th century the Estonian police could solve from 13, to 15, crimes a year.

The number of solved crimes, however, continued to increase year by year. In the police solved 6, crimes or only 20 per cent, in , crimes or In the 21st century the solution of crimes considerably increased. So in the police and the Prosecutor s Office already solved 19, crimes or In , the crime solving rate was In the number of detainees totalled 3, as of the end of year ; of these convicts numbered 2,, persons under preliminary investigation or prosecution while 37 persons were serving life sentences.

There were women 6. Persons incarcerated in penal institutions are mostly offenders convicted more than once. Among the prisoners there are 42 per cent ethnic Estonians 69 per cent of the population , 51 per cent ethnic Russians 26 per cent and 7 per cent people of other ethnic groups. There were 61 per cent Estonian citizens, 33 per cent persons of undefined citizenship and 6 per cent of citizens of foreign countries.

The number of detainees serving a prison term for the first time is steadily declining, falling from 41 per cent in to 31 per cent in In , Estonian prisons had detainees, 13 per cent of the total number, serving terms of up to one year, 1, detainees 52 per cent whose prison term was from one to five years, detainees 23 per cent from five to ten years, detainees 8 per cent from ten to 15 years; 91 detainees 3 per Number of detainees excluding persons under investigation or prosecution per , residents in the period as of the end of year cent from 15 to 30 years and 36 persons 1 per cent serving life sentences.

In the Soviet period the number of persons serving prison terms was considerably higher, which was mainly due to much longer terms it was believed that the house of detention reeducated the criminal and the fact that the crime detection level was higher than before Second World War and in the period of the restoration of Estonian independence see Figure 4.

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Maduro was seen as likely to use the attack as a pretext for another crackdown on political rivals and to purge the security forces to further consolidate his power.

In a weekend meeting with senior military officials, Maduro appeared to preface such a purge, reiterating his claim of Colombian and US involvement and saying that members of the armed forces should distance themselves from family members opposed to the government. Scores of personnel from various branches of the Venezuelan military have already been arrested and charged with treason so far this year, Ramsey said, but the government may see this case differently.

Some officers have used their position to pursue corruption or drug-trafficking schemes and now rely on the government to shield them from prosecution. During the weekend meeting, Maduro also announced new benefits for military personnel, part of an effort to grow the force. Not all members of the military have benefited from those perks, however, and discontent has grown as the country frays.

It's happened before

Despite changing sentiment, the latest crackdown seems unlikely to provoke a successful revolt.

Martha McSally of Arizona and Rep. Elise Stefanik of New York. The absence of any mention of McCain — whom the defense bill is named after — raised eyebrows. You know, the decorated war hero who was a prisoner of war, continues to serve as United States senator, chairman of the [Senate] Armed Services Committee. John McCain and his family and thank him for his service to the country," Tapper added. I hate to tell you. The president has continued to throw subtle jabs at the senator after he voiced his opposition on matters of national security , healthcare , and immigration.

Meanwhile, McCain said he was "humbled" and thanked his colleagues for naming the bill after him. Following the all-white uniformity at Wimbledon, tennis players tend to go all out on fashion when they compete at the US Open every year. So it seems apt that Nike enlisted streetwear designer Virgil Abloh to create a new line for Serena Williams to wear at the tournament, which takes place in New York City later this month.

Scroll through to see the whole collection, which will also be available at select Nike stores in the coming weeks. He said in a press release that he hoped to "embody her spirit and bring something compelling and fresh to tennis.

We traded images and there was a lot of back-and-forth to get this done in short order". Louis, and in doing so, he became one of just five golfers in history to win the U. Open and the PGA in the same season. Ironically, one of those other golfers, Tiger Woods, finished second, coming up just short in his quest to win a major tournament more than ten years after winning his last one.

Koepka barely blinked in a fourth round he started with a two-shot lead, shooting 66 to finish at under par, while Woods thrilled the crowds repeatedly with a wild round of 64 to finish two strokes behind the winner. His win was fueled by a tournament-record 63 in the second round and by steady play in the face of a patented Woods charge in the fourth round.

Although Woods never took the lead, he made eight birdies on Sunday to constantly keep the pressure on Koepka and Adam Scott, who played in the final pairing, two groups behind Woods. Scott posted 67 in the fourth round to finish third at 13 under, his best result in a major tournament since when he won the Masters and finished tied for third in the British Open.

Stewart Cink and Jon Rahm finished tied for fourth at under par. No matter what any other player did on the course, though, the champion rarely wavered, especially on the final 12 holes which he played in 5-under par.

Koepka, who missed the Masters this year due to injury, is now a shoo-in winner for the PGA of America Player of the Year, having won two of the three majors he played in this season.

Woods opened with a 70 on Thursday, and it was Gary Woodland, who won the Phoenix Open back in February, surprisingly in the lead after the first round of play, shooting 64 to take a one-stroke lead over Rickie Fowler.

Zach Johnson was tied for third at 4-under par, just two strokes behind Woodland, with Brandon Stone. After the completion of the second round on Saturday morning due to weather issues on Friday afternoon, Woodland still led the tournament. He carded a 66 to sit at under par, closely followed by Kevin Kisner at 9 under. Kisner shot 64 in the second, and coupled with his 67 from Thursday, he found himself in sole possession of second place. Fowler was in third, two shots back of the lead, after a second-round 67, tied with Koepka, who shot his blistering tournament-record 63 on Friday before the weather delay.

Overall, 17 players were within five shots of Woodland heading into the third round on Saturday, and close to half of them already had won a major in their respective careers. At one point, Koepka threatened to run away with tournament, as he led by five strokes for a time. However, by the end of Saturday play, the eventual champion led by two strokes at under par after shooting Scott carded a 65 to finish at 10 under, while three players were tied at 9-under par: Fowler, Woodland, and Rahm.

Woods lurked in a six-way tie for sixth-place tie at 8 under after posting his second straight round of Despite his brilliant career, Woods has never won a major when attempting to come from behind in the fourth round, and in addition to making those eight birdies on Sunday, Woods also carded two bogeys which ended up costing him a chance to break that pattern.

Needless to say, with a sixth-place tie at the British Open also under his belt this season—where he actually led briefly in the final round—Woods made it clear on Sunday he may yet have more major championships in his future. With his third major title, having also won the U. Open in , Koepka is now part of another select group of golfers to have won at least three majors in their 20s.

This Week In Golf. Once known as the Greater Greensboro Open for decades, the Wyndham is a great opportunity late in the season to collect money and points for a lot of golfers that may not have been able to break through yet this year. Henrik Stenson is the defending champion, as the Tour heads to North Carolina and the Sedgefield Country Club for an event that dates back to , when the legendary Sam Snead won the first of his record eight event titles.

Also scheduled to play in the tournament is Rafa Cabrera Bello, who shot 64 on Sunday at the PGA to finish in a tie for tenth place at 9-under par. Cink and Scott will try to capitalize on their excellent play at Bellerive, too, hoping it carries over to Sedgefield.

Open, will be on hand and in the field to perhaps do some last-minute scouting for that international competition scheduled for September in France. Dating back to , the event has been played predominantly on the Sedgefield course, designed by Donald Ross in Although Scottish by birth, Ross designed hundreds of course in the United States, although this loop is the only he created that is still used for a PGA Tour event.

He also designed U. He also is an Ironman triathlete and certified triathlon coach. International air travel is normally a pretty stressful affair. We hustle just to get to the airport. Then we stand through long lines in both security and passport check. We are usually charged fee after fee just to board the plane and get our bags through; and to top it off, the seats are usually crammed. These airports were built to impress travelers, not just to shuttle them around the world.

They were constructed to the tune of many millions if not billions of dollars to impress and inspire world travelers on a grand scale of what their host countries are capable of accomplishing. There is no other airport in the world that supplies its travelers with both a brewery and giant ice rink. During Christmas the airport holds a winter market where travelers can skate around and then try various brews. Since opening in , this has been rated one of the top airports in the world.

Incheon International includes fascinating architecture and various gardens sprinkled throughout its terminals. Расследование преступлений лишь в детективных романах предстает как захватывающее дух действо. В реальности это рутина. Отработать окружение, пройти по денежному следу, собрать материальные улики, по два, по три, а если надо, и по десять раз опросить всех, кто имел или мог иметь отношение к потерпевшему.

Весь вопрос в наличествующих ресурсах. На расследование инцидента в Солсбери британские власти истратили уже более 12 млн долларов и, как они сами утверждают, поставили на него лучшие полицейские кадры.

Медийно инциденты в двух лондонских пригородах отработаны почти на отлично. То же самое будут говорить все мейнстримные политики. Лишь немногие члены парламентов США и Британии могут позволить себе, говоря юридическим языком, обоснованные сомнения. Особенно грамотно был срежиссирован последний демарш Госдепа.

Американское дипломатическое ведомство пригрозило Москве такими санкциями, что политики и эксперты три дня обсуждали лишь их возможные последствия. Но что с самим уголовным делом?

Точнее, с его расследованием? Что ж, Москву и не планировалось допускать к этим материалам. Некоторые из них даже от местной полиции засекречены.

И все же с каждой новой волной антироссийского пиара в связи с делом Скрипалей становится всё яснее, о чем молчат, точнее, что прячут от России и мира британские силовики и их американские коллеги.

Родни у Сергея Скрипаля в Британии нет. К нему время от времени приезжала дочь и во время последнего визита была отравлена вместе с отцом. Что ж, Юлию Скрипаль следователи отработали. В какой-то момент в прессу попала версия, что отравляющее вещество было в ее багаже. Но эта версия не подтвердилась. Так, знакомые и соседи. Их опросы а также экспертиза позволили опровергнуть версию о том, что отравляющее вещество было помещено в кондиционер автомобиля Скрипаля.

Представим себе обычное следствие. Первые опросы и экспертизы ничего не прояснили. Кто у нас там на очереди? И вот тут в материалах следствия зияет огромная дыра. Между тем имя его работодателя хорошо известно во всем мире. Не проходит и дня, чтобы его имя не упоминалось в американской прессе. Позднее стало известно, что еще одним заказчиком Стила было ФБР. Бюро достаточно давно пользовалось услугами Orbis, но в году отказалось от них, поскольку предоставляемые Стилом данные зачастую являлись непроверенными или вовсе высосанными из пальца.

Однако в году Стил снова понадобился Вашингтону. Отчасти это объясняется прекрасно поставленным самопиаром Кристофера. Но главное было, конечно, не в этом. Как выяснили американские журналисты Дэвид Корн и Майкл Изикофф, посредником в сделке выступил не кто-нибудь, а Виктория Нуланд, спецпредставитель США на Украине в статусе заместителя госсекретаря.

Однако еще в марте часть их исследований была опубликована в издании The Washington Times. Досье Стила впоследствии было использовано минюстом США для получения ордеров на прослушку членов команды Трампа. На какие же источники ссылался его автор? Кристофер Стил работал в Москве под дипломатическим прикрытием в — гг.

Двумя годами позже его карьера резко пошла в гору. В м он был уже шефом русского отдела МИ В марте года британская газета The Telegraph сообщила о том, что Сергей Скрипаль работал на Orbis. И если уж кто и помог Стилу сочинить его опус, то Скрипаль. И вот вопрос на триллион долларов. Почему следствие не занялось вплотную Кристофером Стилом?

Пусть даже не в качестве подозреваемого, а в качестве свидетеля? Ведь он был самым близким потерпевшему человеком в Большом Лондоне! Сложно представить, что за такую перспективную ниточку британские полицейские не потянули из лености или по недосмотру. И каждый раз, когда для такого допроса появляется новое юридическое основание, британское правительство, минюст или Госдепартамент США поднимают новую медийную волну с обвинениями в адрес России. Предыдущая волна в связи с инцидентом в Эймсбери поднялась в июле после того, как глава спецкомитета палаты представителей Дэвин Нуньес заявил о необходимости допроса всех людей, которые контактировали со Стилом.

Стил по-прежнему отказывается предстать перед Конгрессом США. Но за день до публикации в Washington Examiner стало известно, что в распоряжении американских законодателей есть определенный юридический рычаг. Дело было быстро урегулировано в досудебном порядке. BuzzFeed извинился, убрал из публикации упоминания о Губареве и его компании, а также выплатил истцу денежную компенсацию.

Однако в ходе предварительных юридических процедур Кристофер Стил дал в Лондоне показания под присягой. В Сенате об этом узнали в начале августа.

И глава юридического комитета Чак Грассли тут же запросил у адвокатов истца копию видеозаписи допроса, на что те ответили предварительным согласием, о чем сообщил таблоид The Daily Caller. Тогда и дело об отравлении в Солсбери предстанет совсем в другом свете. Кристофер Стил может сколько угодно плевать на требования американских властей. Его обменивала американская сторона на группу российских агентов, включая небезызвестную Анну Чапман.

Тут уж британских коллег могут настойчиво попросить привезти бывшего полковника ГРУ на допрос. Что он мог бы рассказать? Видимо, что-то очень важное, раз 9 августа Госдепартамент решился на самый отчаянный антироссийский демарш за все время президентства Трампа. Российский МИД справедливо отмечает , что обвинения в адрес Москвы являются грубым давлением на следствие. Нам, как и американским конгрессменам, надо знать, что же скрывает Кристофер Стил.

К нему тянется слишком много ниточек. Он является одной из ключевых фигур заговора, результатом которого стало резкое ухудшение российско-американских отношений. Не говоря уже о том, что он почти наверняка знает, что произошло с гражданкой России Юлией Скрипаль. Дело на негодяя пора заводить. Как минимум затребовать копию записи его допроса в Лондоне. While Tesla CEO Elon Musk teased last week about taking the company private, several suitors may have already been courting the electric car giant months ago.

The Saudi investment fund approached Musk months ago to discuss acquiring a minority stake but was turned down as the company did not plan on issuing new shares at the time, a source close to the discussions told Bloomberg. The fund has not yet made any concrete plans with Tesla on increasing its stake, sources told Bloomberg, but talks are ongoing, and continued investment in the company is seen as a strategic step toward diversifying the Saudi economy away from oil.

Rather, Texas and parts of the Mountain region are taking over and considered the "biggest boomtowns" in America. Each category was scored relative to other metros and looking at positive and negative changes in the area. The biggest positive change scores a , except unemployment rate, which was reversed in respect to the scale. Below are the top 35 metros that showed the most people, business, and opportunity growth over a five-year period. The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust said record-breaking temperatures led six flamingos to lay nine eggs at the Gloucestershire reserve in southwest England.

The move may encourage the birds to lay more eggs, and the reserve is hopeful that one of the flamingos could be fertile. The flock last laid eggs in , though it last successfully bred in , according to a news release from the reserve. The Andean flamingos are some of the oldest animals at the wildlife reserve in England — some of the birds arrived in the s and have lasted longer than any of the staff. The average high for the month was What if a pharmacist decided to substitute morphine pills or strychnine for the next prescription you pick up?

What if a school-bus driver decided to swing the wheel, and plow a full load of children head-on into incoming traffic, or off an overpass? What if a FedEx or UPS courier decided to deliver a box full of explosives, or anthrax spores, to an office building, rather than business supplies?

What if a disturbed student, teacher, or parent walked into a public school and opened fire on everyone in sight? The last possibility is a reminder that there are risks some societies will define as acceptable. All the rest illustrate the reality that our lives hang by threads that someone else could decide to cut. The ability to inflict harm, whether intentionally or accidentally, rises more or less in pace with the technological complexity and interdependence of modern life.

Every modern city dweller depends for daily well-being and even survival on systems that make up the hard and soft infrastructure of society—water, power, sanitation, public health, and on down the list of services no one notices until something goes wrong.

As for people determined to do harm—the pharmacist who wants to poison customers, the bus driver intent on suicide—the only absolute protection would be surveillance and regimentation on a draconian scale. Want to avoid the risk that any bus driver, ever, could do something rash? Send them all through full FBI criminal-background checks, plus psychological testing, and then staff every bus with both a driver and a co-driver, each to keep an eye on the other. Any school system could do this.

Thus sane approaches to security have been careful to set the goal of reducing risks, rather than eliminating them. The first is possible, and it naturally leads to discussions of cost, practicality, and the tradeoffs between security and liberty.

So we come to the bizarre, frightening, and tragic episode on Friday night in Seattle, in which a ground-staff baggage employee of a regional airline got into an empty twin-engine turboprop, started it up and took off without permission, flew dramatic aerobatic maneuvers over Puget Sound, and then crashed on an island off Tacoma, killing himself in an apparent suicide.

Bizarre, frightening, and tragic this certainly was. Was it a sign of an alarming failure in security practices, and some press accounts immediately asserted? Aviation experts questioned what the authorities would have been able to do if the pilot was determined to fly the plane into a city rather than do loop-the-loops.

Maybe this will be the appropriate response when more facts are known. For the moment, as is usually the case with aviation disasters, many of the most important questions about what happened are impossible to answer right away. Here are some of the aviation details, known and still puzzling, and then my hypothesis as to how this could have happened. I trained for and got my instrument rating at Boeing Field, in Seattle, in and flew frequently in Seattle airspace when I lived there in and Could this have been much worse?

Clearly it could have. If a ground-crew member had been purposeful, better trained, and able to haul explosives or other damaging cargo with him onto the plane, he could have reached downtown Seattle before the Fs got to him. Airline travel in the U.

Could it have been avoided altogether? As with the Germanwings crash of , in which a depressed year-old airline pilot deliberately flew himself and other people into the ground, the easiest break-point would have been someone noticing how disturbed a staff member had become. As for even greater screening and supervision of airport and airline staff members, that is sure to come. One reason North American and European airlines are now so exceptionally safe is that they view each crash, death, or even near-miss as the occasion for systematic learning and error reduction, to address the vulnerability that has just been revealed.

Because decades of refinement have eliminated so many air-safety problems, the crashes that do occur tend to involve some previously underappreciated problem—for instance, the auto-pilot and crew-management issues that led Air France to plunge into the Atlantic Ocean. Think of how different this is from car-crash investigations or the stories of mass shootings, where the background factors are so familiar that most people can guess them before the full details come in.

I hope that, when the facts are in, the response to this odd, sad incident will resemble what the aviation system usually does with its failures, rather than the way the political system often behaves. Business Insider had the chance to speak with two Waymo employees from different parts of the company to learn more about their work. This is the first in the series. It was , and what we now know as Waymo, formerly the self-driving Google Car project had just been started.

In fact, it was so confidential that it even had a code name: But the goofy looking Prius would soon out the University of California, Berkeley fine-art graduate on a completely different and unexpected path.

Villegas went to check out the Prius, which was headed toward an autocross course. The operator of the car said they needed "ballast" in the back seat. So she jumped in. After a few minutes of what she described as "ripping around corners," her mind was made up. The wrinkle was that Google Car drivers had to try out. The googlers on the self-driving car project had been improvising. Villegas described the opposite of a command-and-control management system. When the team decided to explore situations that might come up on public roads, she ordered some supplies from Amazon.

Then the Google Car vehicle began to deal with the more mundane aspects of everyday driving. If the car knocked over a trash can, the engineers got excited, Villegas recalled. But the project was rapidly outgrowing the Shoreline Amphitheater, which was also spoken for when concert season arrived in the spring.

The Cold War ruin had a new lease on life. I talked to civil engineers to see if it was possible. It was basically me with a pencil and a piece of paper. In the beginning, Castle was rough — intentionally. Google left the potholes to test the durability of self-driving platform, such as the adorable Firefly podmobile. Waymo biggest current challenge is adapting the various dynamics of the different vehicles the company has partnered with automakers — Fiat Chrysler, Jaguar — to use.

A logistics business means semi trucks. Villegas clearly pinches herself from time to time. That spinning-bucket Prius could be worth more than three General Motors. Waymo is now letting ordinary people sign up to test its self-driving cars in Phoenix. Mi was 14 and had just moved to Harbin, a city in northeast China.

The move cost her half a semester of school, and she was severely behind the rest of her new class in math. With a class of 60 students, her teacher had little time to help Mi catch up. A vicious cycle ensued: Eventually, Mi withdrew into herself, reading science-fiction magazines hidden in her notebooks during class. One day, Mi recalls, the teacher noticed, strolled over to her desk, ripped up the books, threw them in her face, and told her to get out and never come back.

That makes it one of the fastest-growing startups not only in education tech, in which companies use technology to improve learning, but in all of China. In a class of 60 students, she said, it would be impossible to provide the special attention many students need. But it is why she founded VIPKid. Education, and particularly English education, has long been a major focus of Chinese culture.

The first wave of tutoring companies in China came in the s and early s with brick-and-mortar classrooms, as the Chinese government placed a heavy emphasis on English proficiency as a hallmark of national competitiveness. By , more than 50, private language schools had opened in China, run by a mix of corporations and family-owned shops. While the English education industry may be thriving, quality English teachers are still difficult to find in China, particularly outside big cities like Beijing and Shanghai, and brick-and-mortar classes are expensive.

As a result, many are turning to online classes like those provided by VIPKid. Mi is no stranger to English education. She was part of that first wave.

In , at the age of 17, Mi dropped out of school to found ABCEnglish, a brick-and-mortar English education company, with her uncle. Her parents were encouraging. She did a little of everything to make it run: She worked early in the morning until 10 at night. When she finished, she worked on her own studies until 2 a. But, like many entrepreneurs, she always wanted more: To call VIPKid a language company misses the point.

The near-term goal of VIPKid may be to democratize high-quality education, but Mi thinks the company can help create a generation of global citizens who understand the way the world is interconnected and thus promote understanding across cultures.

She taught herself how to speak English by immersing herself in American pop culture and English literature. The first songs she learned: The script was predictable. Oh boy, here comes the SEC enforcement platoon! Musk better show some contrition and fast. Sure, Musk has authored some boneheaded utterances on Twitter, most recently accusing a diver involved in the Thai cave rescue of pedophilia.

It took the going-private tweet to really bring out the moral legislators, however. In this respect, Musk is a 21st-century Martin Luther, but with electric cars, rockets, and characters rather than 95 Theses. Morals are fraught things. When I was in college, I always stressed a crucial — and in retrospect somewhat sophistic — distinction between morals and ethics.

The former I saw as transcendent as best and authoritarian at best; the latter were the result of a reasoned inquiry, debate, and in functional societies, usually codified as both formal and informal rules and laws.

Musk may have pushed his luck on the ethical side, but that will ultimately be for regulators to decide. In other words, he might have broken some rules. But did he do something morally wrong?

Something offensive to non-governmental market overseers or participants? That said, Musk might have inadvertently invited some of the scorn. But you have to accept this critical objective. Which, taken to an extreme, could mean the death of the species. Like any hardbitten student of business, Chanos expects companies to be enthusiastic about triumph.

Back in my undergrad days, with youthful iconoclasm, I tagged the moralist as being inflexible of mind and stingy of spirit. The ethicist might have been more wintry and aloof, but that person was better able to contend with gigantic modern problems without reverting to unfeeling, technocratic rationality. One day in the summer of , a young South Korean army captain named Oh Hyung Jae received a summons from the army counterintelligence corps.

His specialty was not espionage, but applied mathematics, which he taught at the Korea Military Academy. What could they want with me? At the counterintelligence bureau in Seoul, an agent was waiting for him. A grim, knowing look stretched across his face. In the course of a sweeping counterintelligence operation, the South Korean military had discovered that Young Jae had been conscripted by the invading North Korean army in the July of —a secret the family had held close since then. In the South Korean military, those with personal ties to North Korea were barred from service.

Young Jae, who the family had long since given up for dead, was in fact alive and may be training as a North Korean spy, the officer told Hyung Jae.

In the following decades, South Korea transformed itself from a poor, war-ravaged nation into a wealthy democracy, deepening the contrast with the opaque, dynastic dictatorship that had emerged in the North. With the war behind them, the Oh brothers settled into careers in academia and started families. As North and South Korea set on vastly divergent paths, reunification became a distant dream, even as thousands of South Koreans like the Ohs, separated from their loved ones during the war, wondered if they would ever see them again.

As Hyung Jae scanned the article, his eyes fixed on the name of a poet in Pyongyang who had grown up in South Korea: The poet also mentioned the name of his mother, Kwak Aeng Soon. But from his autobiographical writings, poetry, and testimonies from those who met him emerges a story about the complexities of national identity, and the ways in which family bonds can defy ideological divides.

Oh Young Jae was born on November 17th, , in Jangseong, a small farming village off the southwestern coast of South Korea. Young Jae had little interest in schoolwork or books, much to the dismay of their strict father, a school principal. Within weeks of the outbreak of the Korean War, the North Korean army marched into Gangjin, the small farming village where the Oh family then lived. The indoctrination was the first step in the process of recruiting South Korean youth like Young Jae.

The army conscripted young men from local schools, including the high school Hyung Jae and Young Jae attended. The North Korean army would eventually force , coerce, or indoctrinate, as many as , South Koreans, most of whom never returned home. Men were forced to fight on the front lines or perform logistical duties, while women took on nursing or propaganda roles.

By the time the North Korean forces had reached Gangjin, they had secured a number of decisive victories against the South Korean army. To the villagers, a North Korean victory seemed imminent. Egged on by his classmates and teachers, Young Jae, only 15 years old, stepped forward, and was soon taken to a village 20 miles away for a week of basic training before marching out to the front.

When his mother learned of his decision, she rushed to stop him, walking 20 miles on a winding mountain dirt path with her infant daughter on her back. But Young Jae rebuffed her, his brothers recalled. His mother gave him one last smile. Decades later, Young Jae would say that he never forgot that image of his mother, walking away into the sunset for what would be the last time he saw her. As the North Korean army retreated back up the peninsula in , passing through a farming village in Gangwon Province, Oh Young Jae came across a charred book of North Korean poetry, published for the soldiers.

This seems to have triggered his creative desires. Sitting atop munition crates, he began writing his own poems. Spiridonov, whom the author of this article knew for 25 years, said that he still wanted to write his last book, which would have been titled Philosophy of Right. Spiridonov said on several occasions that he had already written the first sentence of the book: Everything that is regarded as science in jurisprudence or law actually isn t it Spiridonov, Unsystematic treatment Here, the author very briefly analyses certain notions and terms connected with law and linked with the research of Table 1.

Registered crime in the period crime. The author did it unsystematically, not characteristically of the scientific approach to the subject.

The author did not present the terms dealing with the reality in transition from one to another, although they should flow like water in a river, but did it as it is peculiar to our today s science. Probably the time has arrived when it is necessary to start on a strictly scientific basis about the contents of phenomena of the reality law and non-law, positive law and legislative acts legislation , crime and punishment and offences crime.

The time of complicated and often nondescript definitions sucked out of the pen seems to be over. I feel sorry for law students who have to learn by heart all kind of definitions, which even the lecturer often does not understand. Here is a funny example from the late s when a lecturer at the Faculty of Law of Tartu State University said that a warrant of payment was a document titled Warrant of Payment.

But if the student s mechanical memory is not so good, he will develop difficulties in the acquisition of subjects taught at the Faculty of Law. II Crime in Estonia in the period from to Some general observations The world, the society the civic society as Hegel liked to say and even the state, are organised bodies. Their evolution is based on universal laws. However, they function in a different way in every country, refracted in the prism of unique national individuality and the non-recurring historical experience of different peoples.

It must be born in mind that every age is the sequel of the previous one even if it next stage seems to be only a radical negation of the previous social formations. The tomorrow of breaches of the law crime is inevitably connected with their yesterday.

It is understood that every production relationship, that is relationship between people in the process of social production and through their relations to the means of production, that is relations of ownership, are characterised by its legal relations and regularities, which in turn affect the structure, dynamics and level of crime. At the same time it is necessary to point out that the legist, being a member of the society, a contemporary of a certain historical epoch, and possessing certain philosophical, economic juridical, political and other views, must be above all honest with respect to himself and scholarship Spiridonov, In the brief treatment of crime that appears below the author is based on the traditional method of the treatment of crime.

An act of the Republic of Estonia of 9 November. Number of crimes registered and those solved, declared that all legal acts that were in force in the territory of the Republic of Estonia until 24 October had legal force. That ruling means that all penal acts of the Russian Empire, specifically the Code of Criminal and Corrective Punishments of , which entered into force from 1 May , the Law on Punishments given by Peace Courts of and certain parts of the Criminal Code of had legal force in the country.

From 1 April the Criminal Code of the Estonian SSR entered into force and remained in effect until By an act of the Republic of Estonia of 7 May a new version of the Criminal Code of the Estonian SSR entered into force from 1 June After the restoration of independence, the Criminal Code of was constantly amended so, capital punishment was abolished in and other acts in the area of the administration of justice were passed.

The new Criminal Code entered into force from 1 September , and in a certain sense became the summit in the history of Estonian criminal law, being very close to its continental European model, above all German one. The authors of the new Criminal Code mainly followed the example of the German Strafgesetzbuch of and the French Code Penal of Statistical analyses Crimes against the life, health and property of people as a form of unlawful activity are a reflection of the basis of common social existence and living conditions of members of the society.

On the other hand statistics often do no reflect crimes 3 economic crimes, corruption etc committed by employers, 2. All the figures and tables were drawn up by mag. The criminal statistics of the Russian Empire suffers from certain inaccuracy. An analysis of the dynamics of crime registered by Estonian law enforcement bodies shows that at the end of the existence of the Russian Empire the level of crime in Estonia was somewhat lower than in the initial years of independence Susi, ; in the canonical Soviet period 4, for example in , the number of crimes registered in the Estonian SSR was nearly five times lower than in the period , seven times lower if we exclude misdemeanours see the lower line on Figure 1 and nine times lower also than in the period of the restoration of Estonian independence, and nine times lower than the number of registered crimes at the beginning of the 21st century.

The biggest number of crimes in the whole history of Estonia, 58,, was recorded in Reiman, , Raid, , Leps, , Leps, a, Leps b, Leps, , Leps , Leps, , Leps, The work of the militia, too, was none the worse than that of the police in the period of independence, and openness of the people before the state as characteristic of the totalitarian society also favoured the solution of crimes.

Crime continued to rise, however, also in Soviet times, but as this did not fit socialist ideology according to which development of socialism was to lead to the contraction of crime, information about the existence of crime was classified.

The author of this article was one among the first to start comparing the level of crime between different world countries 4. In connection with the fact that only criminal cases were registered until , the number of crimes falling under the criminal investigation department was established in accordance with the following method.

An interval as close as possible to the period under observation was chosen in In those years the number of crimes falling under the criminal investigation department was 1.

The same coefficient was used in Estonia to determine the number of crimes registered in the period from the autumn of to Starting with crimes handled in the line of the Department of Fighting with the Misappropriation of Socialist Property OBKhSS and other lines were specified in reports of the Estonian SSR Ministry for Internal Affairs.

In the period from autumn to the number of crimes falling under the OBKhSS line and other services corresponds to the number of criminal cases Leps, The Criminal Code of the Republic of Estonia, in which mainly misdemeanours and a number of other corpora delicti were no longer included, entered into force in As a result of the number of registered crimes sharply declined.

The structure of registered crimes was not published. There is no available criminal statistics of the years. Persons incarcerated in penal institutions, at end of year 95 world countries that published their crime figures , in which the gravest crime of all, premeditated murder, served as the basis of measurement Leps, a. Although this method, too, has certain shortcomings, it is still the most reliable way of comparing the level of crime between different countries and the method can be successfully used also in historical terms.

Figure 2 quite accurately confirms the rightness of this method cf. Figures 1 and 2. Intensive growth in the number of premeditated murders including attempts is observed in , the so-called transition period. So in a record number of premeditated murders and attempted murders were registered a total of It was the classical period of the so-called thug capitalism when people usually accumulated their wealth created a class of owners!

At the same time, juridical laws kept silent like in the period of wars in Rome in the antiquity. In the recent years the number of cases of murder and manslaughter has considerably contracted. Restoration of independence brought also numerous problems in addition to freedom economic difficulties, sharp differences in affluence in the society and unemployment. On that social background an explosive growth in crime took place and the state experienced difficulty in ensuring the security of the population.

However, there has been a certain fall in the figures of registered crime. The number of crimes registered by the Estonian lawenforcement bodies has fallen in the recent years. In , 42, criminal offences were registered in Estonia, the lowest indicator during the eight years in which the Penal Code has been in force. Compared to , the number of registered criminal offences has decreased by In the number of crimes per , residents was 3, The number of crimes against property, which until showed a downward trend, has again slightly increased.

Although the number of crimes against property has dropped by It is interesting to note that the economic crisis disciplines members of the society to a certain degree 6. Crime solution Crime solution is one of the most important duties of the police and serves as the basis to bringing persons having committed crimes to criminal responsibility.

Figure 3 reflects the relationship between crimes registered and solved by the police in Leps, Figure 3 views the crimes registered and solved in the period and for the period crimes registered and solved by criminal investigation bodies. Starting from the earlier statistics are no longer given, therefore we regard all the crimes as registered and solved by Estonian law and order bodies. The number of all non-solved crimes has increased. Data of the Estonian Ministry of Justice.

In there was no record of all the crimes that remained unsolved. But the work of the Estonian criminal police in the solution of crime was rather stable.

This was one of the best indicators in the world. In the Soviet period the first sharp increase in crime took place during the Moscow Olympic Games in of which the Olympic Regatta was carried out in Tallinn.

In that period a record number of crimes were registered 11,, whereas 2, crimes remained unsolved compared with to registered crimes in the period. Another sharp growth in the number of unsolved crime took place in when 5, crimes remained unsolved.

During the next wave in the rise of crime in as many as 11, crimes remained unsolved. Further, the number of unsolved crimes constantly increased and in already totalled 38, In the last decade of the 20th century the Estonian police could solve from 13, to 15, crimes a year.

The number of solved crimes, however, continued to increase year by year. In the police solved 6, crimes or only 20 per cent, in , crimes or In the 21st century the solution of crimes considerably increased. So in the police and the Prosecutor s Office already solved 19, crimes or In , the crime solving rate was In the number of detainees totalled 3, as of the end of year ; of these convicts numbered 2,, persons under preliminary investigation or prosecution while 37 persons were serving life sentences.

There were women 6. Persons incarcerated in penal institutions are mostly offenders convicted more than once. Among the prisoners there are 42 per cent ethnic Estonians 69 per cent of the population , 51 per cent ethnic Russians 26 per cent and 7 per cent people of other ethnic groups.

There were 61 per cent Estonian citizens, 33 per cent persons of undefined citizenship and 6 per cent of citizens of foreign countries. The number of detainees serving a prison term for the first time is steadily declining, falling from 41 per cent in to 31 per cent in In , Estonian prisons had detainees, 13 per cent of the total number, serving terms of up to one year, 1, detainees 52 per cent whose prison term was from one to five years, detainees 23 per cent from five to ten years, detainees 8 per cent from ten to 15 years; 91 detainees 3 per Number of detainees excluding persons under investigation or prosecution per , residents in the period as of the end of year cent from 15 to 30 years and 36 persons 1 per cent serving life sentences.

In the Soviet period the number of persons serving prison terms was considerably higher, which was mainly due to much longer terms it was believed that the house of detention reeducated the criminal and the fact that the crime detection level was higher than before Second World War and in the period of the restoration of Estonian independence see Figure 4.

If in the average number of detainees totalled 3, and 4, in , then in it was 2, However, the average coefficients per , residents were as follows: In Estonia, persons were incarcerated in penal institutions per , inhabitants on 4 January The number of persons incarcerated in penal institutions per , inhabitants is an important indicator in the comparison of countries.

In the old European Union countries, the prison population level per , inhabitants is generally below persons. In Eastern European countries, there are about imprisoned persons per , inhabitants. In , Estonia started to practice probation supervision. In 4 January , the number of persons under probation supervision was 7,, of which 9 per cent were women and 4 per cent were juveniles. Conclusions It must always be born in mind, wrote L.

Spiridonov, that the scientist-lawyer, being a member of the society, a contemporary of his age, participant in the political struggle, takes a certain one or another position in it. His place in the society determines his beliefs, views and convictions. Besides, one shouldn t forget about numerous cases of lack of conscientiousness and even of direct corruption by those who lay down the law in the name of science Spiridonov, The Past The average level of crime before Second World War , that is in the pre-war Republic of Estonia and in the period of the restoration of Estonian independence was almost equal; however, the average number of detainees in prison institutions per , residents was lower in the period of the restoration of independence than in Estonia before Second World War.

The Present The early phase of capitalism in Estonia brought with it numerous problems, and on that background there was an explosive growth in crime, particularly in when the highest number of crimes in Estonian history was registered. But more recently a certain decline in the number of registered crimes is being observed, and this is mainly connected with the lowering rate of crimes against property, although the number of crimes against individuals is constantly growing while the number of cases of premeditated murder and attempted murder is declining.

In the level of crime per , residents in Estonia totalled 3,, in Latvia 2, and in Lithuania 2, In countries with a high living standard and gross domestic product the level of crime is higher than in Estonia so in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark etc. In the number of detainees in prison institutions per , residents was as follows: But the main concern in Estonia is due to the growth in crime connected with drugs and drunken driving.

In the number of those killed in traffic per 1 million residents in the European Union was the highest in Lithuania , in Latvia and in Estonia - , while in the average EU figure was only 86 Leps, The economic, social and political consequences of corruption are well known and need no comments. Corruption exists in all modern countries. According to Transparency International, Estonia ranks the 28th according to the so-called corruption perception index, with Latvia and Lithuania ranking the 51st.

Future Further enlargement of the European Union and Estonia s accession to the Schengen visa space, continuing globalisation, contradictory understanding of democracy i. Moskva-Leningrad, , p Gilinskiy,Y.

Globalisatsija, deviantnost, sotsialnoi kontrol. Moskva, p Leps, A. Tallinn, p Leps, A. Estonian and Lithuanian Criminal Legislation. Crime and Criminology at the End of the Century.

Crime and Income Distribution in Estonia. Crime and Criminology at the end of the century. Tallinn, pp Leps, A. Comparative Treatment of Crime. Crime in the Changing Society 2. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis Tartu, pp Leps, A.

Comparative Analysis of Crime: International Criminal Justice Review. Atlanta, pp Leps, A. A brief survey of the criminogenic situation in the Republic of Estonia, , Tallinn. Challenges of Policing Democracies. Edited by Das, D. Gordon and Breach Hublichers.

Amsterdam, pp Leps, A. Petersburg 29 June 1 July St. Petersburg, p Leps, A. Topical Problems in Management of Economics and Law. Riga, pp Leps, A. Tallinn, pp ; Tartu, pp Reiman, H. Tallinn, pp Spiridonov, L. Sotsialnoe razvitie i pravo. Мoskva, p Spiridonov, L. Teoria gosudarstva i prava. Petersburg, p , Spiridonov, L. Petersburg, pp Spiridonov, L. Izbrannye proizvedenija po teorii prava. Tartu, p Vilks, A. Current trends and future prospects.

Criminal Law and Criminality in the Baltic Countries. Main Trends Comparative analysis. The paper analyzes deviant phenomena in Russia such as criminality, alcoholism, narcotism, human trafficking, terrorism and suicide influenced by global processes. The current relevance of the research is defined by the widespread deviant phenomena in contemporary Russia, the debatable character of the concept of globalization itself and the lack of studies of deviance in Russia under globalization.

The aim of the paper is to show the interdependence between deviance and the process of globalization and also the globalization of certain deviant phenomena and to draw attention to the inadequate social management of such phenomena. The paper reveals the regularity of deviant phenomena in the globalizing world and examines the dynamics of deviance in Russia.

It also considers the main concepts and problems connected with deviance; the role of globalization in the process of inclusion and exclusion; globalization of certain phenomena of deviance; and globalization of social control over deviance. В статье анализируются явления девиантного поведения в России преступность, алкоголизм, наркомания, незаконный вывоз людей за границу, терроризм и самоубийства , на которые оказывают влияние процессы глобализации.

Цель статьи показать зависимость между этими явлениями и процессами глобализации и привлечь внимание к тому, что эти проблемы трактуются в обществе и решаются неадекватным образом. Статья выявляет регулярность девиантных явлений в мире и исследует их динамику в России. The main concepts and problems Globalization as a phenomenon is widely discussed in social sciences nowadays, and it has become a fashionable topic, including all the positive and negative consequences that arise Bauman, ; Beck, ; Berger, Huntington, ; Cheshkov, ; Baylis, Smith, ; Mittelman, ; Steger, The concept globalization is debatable and is used to denote different things: Systems, Structures and Agents under Globalization: European and Russian Tendencies.

Petersburg, Asterion, pp Deviance is a social phenomenon occurring in relatively large and statistically stable forms types of human activity different from the officially fixed or naturally formed norms and expectations in the society culture, group Gilinskiy, Deviance as a social phenomenon reveals itself in various types of deviant behaviour - acts of behaviour of people groups of people not coinciding with the officially established or already existing norms in a given society culture, subculture, group Gilinskiy, For the topic of this paper it is important to outline the following problems: First, globalization is an objective process characterized by the activities of transnational companies; interdependence of countries energy sources, raw material, technologies, etc.

Some Russian politicians misunderstand the situation and disregard objective globalization processes. It can only worsen Russia s performance in the world market and the situation in Russia itself. It drags Russia into the camp of outsiders. By Russia had moved to the th place regarding life expectancy women - 72 and men - It means hat an average Russian man doesn t manage to live to the pension age.

Russia has one of the lowest life expectancies in the world. Russia is in the st place according to the coefficient of population growth and it occupies one of the first places in the world regarding the death rate Secondly, globalization has positive and negative consequences, with an unequal spread of positive and negative effects on the countries and regions of the world.

In parallel to the process of globalization a process of differentiation and polarization is taking place. This fact is reflected in Roland Robertson s neologism - glocalization. According to Wallerstein the world is divided into core, semi-periphery and periphery countries. Russia was classified by him as a semi-periphery Though there are enough signs that it is degrading to a periphery country states Pantin Pantin, Thirdly, the process of globalization internationalization of different forms of deviance is taking place also, such as prostitute trafficking, narcotics trafficking, organized crime and terrorism.

This is an expected process because deviance its structure, scale and dynamics depends on economic, political, social, demographic and other factors. The on-going process of division of countries, social groups and people into the excluded and the included is stated by many researchers. It is important to understand that globalization increases socio-economic inequality, which is the main cause of deviance.

If, theoretically, it is well known that socio-economic inequality can create deviance from K. Merton and radical criminology the research of contemporary Russian criminologists has proved it empirically.

According to Olkov s investigation of the situation in Russia in the s the greatest number of registered murders - 32, a year - occurred in when there was the highest Gini index, and the lowest number of murders - 15, a year - in when the Gini index was lowest. In Russia the Gini index is one of the highest in the world. In it was But the globalization process can bring harm not only to poor countries but also highly developed ones. Beck remarks that globalization makes possible and evident what, perhaps, has always been present in capitalism but has been contained by democratic institutions of a nation-state.

Enterprises, especially those which operate on the global scale, play a key role, not only in the organization of the economy, but also in the societal life in general, because they have capital, create jobs and can pay big taxes. Transnational corporations disregard the borders of nation-states in search of profit. Due to their transnational nature they, de facto, cancel the contract of loyalty to national institutions. If the social integrity was conditioned mainly by economic factors, the decrease of social integrity is greater in such a nation-state.

It is not by chance that the word globalization brings about a range of emotions. Some people consider it as the forerunner of a civil society, the beginning of a new era of democratization; for others it means economic and political hegemony of the USA, with world cultures becoming homogeneous and metastases of Disneyland Berger; Huntington, Hence, there is the antiglobalist movement protesting against world-wide McDonaldization, the spontaneous upsurge of the excluded in Paris s outskirts and finally even Islamic fundamentalism.

Fourthly, in response to the globalization of deviant phenomena the globalization of social control over deviance is taking place: Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners ; the dissemination of the idea and practice of community policing, i.

At the same time researchers attention is drawn to the increased repressive measures on the part of police and criminal justice directed, first of all, against the excluded, i.

Here are some factors of deviance s genesis and criminogenic factors related to globalization and described by V. The problem of employment. There is a new concept The problem of the markets of financial speculations. It is a market of roulette gamblers. Financial crises will shake countries more and more, especially those that are not highly developed for example, the Russian default of , the financial problems of Eastern Asia and so on.

The problem of the national government s management. There is a dramatic decrease in the possibilities for national governments to manage their societies and to provide social control over criminality. The criminologists have noticed this trend since the second half of the previous century. We are facing a new test Turayev, Revolutionization of the population at the beginning of the 20t h century gave birth to revolutionary violence matching terrorism.

Instead of taking political, economic and social measures the government reacted to the revolutionary violence It resulted in the victory of the revolution in Russia with the possibility of spreading revolution to other countries. At the beginning of the current century political, social and economic disparities in the globalizing world push new revolutionaries-terrorists backed by poverty-stricken and robbed up nations, to total terrorism against the rich and hated governments in the despised countries Luneyev, Instead of responding by solving political, social and economic problems, anti-terrorist operations and violence are organized by these governments.

Besides, there are global demographic disproportions and mass migration. The hopelessness felt by the population of the countries with backward economies creates a social basis for radicalism and terrorism, Luneyev, To sum up, globalization increases social economic inequality among people and societies and increases the scale of the excluded - which is the social basis for deviant manifestations - and the gap between the included and excluded. Globalization of economies, politics and cultures is accompanied by the globalization of both different types of deviance and social control.

Globalization of deviant phenomena 2. Criminality There is a kind of correlation between criminality and other economic, social, political, demographic and cultural processes. Hence, we have the globalization of criminality which follows a general globalization path. We can observe some regularity of the expression of these correlations in the world Luneyev, However, since the end of the s there has been a global trend of slower growth rate of criminality and the reduction of certain categories of crime in the world, which we can see below based on Luneyev, For example, in Europe in the level of general criminality lowered: The years of , , can serve us as the base years.

In those years the level of criminality per thousand people was the following: That tendency of lower rate characterized the majority of developed European countries and countries of North America. On the whole the level of general criminality per thousand people rose from 2, in to 3, in in the world and, in particular: Analogous fluctuations referred to certain types of criminal cases. The level of murders was very high more than per thousand people beginning from , which put Russia on the third place in the world after Columbia and the Republic of South Africa.

It is important to state that the steady growth of registered criminal cases reflected the growing number of criminals without a permanent source of income, such excluded constituted The globalization of deviance is especially clearly manifested in the activities of organized crime Gilinskiy, There are various definitions of organized crime.

We can use the definition suggested at the International conference in Suzdal Russia in Organized crime is not simply the aggregation of criminal groups and the criminal offences committed by them. It involves qualitatively new characteristics of criminality. It is built into the social system and affects its components, mainly its economy and politics. The formation and development of organized crime is a world process that is in conformity with certain laws.

It is a particular case of better organized management at the subsystem level economics, politics and so on. Organized crime was institutionalized in different countries at different times. The main characteristics of organized crime as a social institution are the following: The process of institutionalization of organized crime started in Russia the Soviet Union from the end of the s or the beginning of the s and finished by the end of the s or the beginning of the s.

The most important mechanism of organized crime is its readiness for integration. Russian organized criminal groups widely integrated into international organized crime by the beginning of the s. The Russian criminal plenipotentiaries for European countries were preoccupied with the coordination of business with foreign colleagues and organization of criminal involvement of visiting fellowcountrymen into the life of the Russian communities abroad.

Economic expediency and criminal drive predetermined the dynamic character of globalization of organized crime. International cooperation of criminal structures has been known for Illegal export-import traffic of narcotics, weapons, alcohol, prostitutes and international money-laundering - all are well known Ovchinsky, Eminov, Yablokov, We want to demonstrate the directions of internationalization of organized crime using the interview taken by Y.

Petersburg s criminal groups about their activities Gilinskiy, Kostyukovsky, What sort of criminal business is the most popular? Respondent R , the member of a criminal group: In half all the metal from Russia was exported illegally. It was a good business! People earned so much for two or three months that it is enough to live on even now.

True, they had to work 25 hours per day But the game was worth the long hours. The difference of prices here and in Estonia, for example, was crazy. Illegal export and market of living goods, i. And what about prostitution?

Petersburg is a well-established industry, it was not invented only yesterday. It can be an invitation to work abroad in the strip-tease show or in the service sphere in general. But when they are exported, for example, to Turkey they are forcibly made to become prostitutes.

Some are lucky if they manage to run away. But the end is usually bad Stealing and selling stolen cars international car business I.: Do you have contacts with foreigners? We have a car business. A kind of exchange. Here, in Peeterr 1 the car is stolen and brought to Germany and in return from Holland to Russia. So, with organized crime everything is OK - there are international contacts. Illegal export of radioactive material The news of the illegal export of radioactive material from Russia leaked into the mass media causing discussion in Russia and abroad Ovchinsky, Eminov, Yablokov, Illegal export of weapons One of the most profitable criminal businesses the second most profitable after the drag trade is the sales of weapons 1.

St Petersburg; Peter sounds Peeterr in Russian. It is the name of Russian tsar Peter the Great, the founder St. But the data about the trade of weapons are scarce because it is connected with the criminal activities of highranking military officials - federal and regional. One can buy anything if one has enough money Gurov, The international networks of illegal production The international networks of illegal production and trade flourish, especially if it involves the trade and production of alcohol.

Illegal alcohol arrives in Russia from Poland, the Netherlands and other countries. Narcobusiness International business in narcotics brings the greatest profit world-wide. Globalization of criminalized legal economy It should be added to the above-mentioned that the phenomenon of the globalization of the criminalized legal economy takes place now e.

The profits of transnational organized crime are invested into the legal economy via controlled banks for the purpose of money-laundering. According to the experts from the American National Strategy Information Center, the overall profit of international organized crime reaches a trillion dollars, which approaches the annual budget of the USA Repetskaya, Globalization of criminality connected with migration Globalization of criminality takes place not only in the form of organized crime.

Increased migration flows bring both positive results internationalization of science, art, culture and negative ones. Migrants, apart from their different ethnic traditions, have more every day problems while adapting to the new reality of the host country than the natives: Many recipient countries have begun to come across the problem of newcomers crimes. For example, in in Germany the non-native citizens non-germans made up The proportion of migrants committing crimes is the following: The accelerated rate of economic and cultural: In spite of the general trend of the increase of alcohol addiction, its world; dynamics resembles a wavy line.

Since the middle of the 19th century one can find three upsurges in the growth of alcohol consumption, with the development cycle lasting for years. The first rise happened in the middle of the 19 th century the second rise started at the end of the 19 century and lasted till the ss. The latest rise took place after the war and finished at the end of the s.

From the beginning of the s the consumption, especially of wine, and to a lesser degree - beer, has reduced a little Gurvich, Goryachova,

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